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      Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

      International journal of cancer
      Wiley
      meat subtypes, colorectal cancer, meta-analysis, poultry, red meat

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          Abstract

          Associations between specific red meat subtypes and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been investigated in a number of epidemiological studies. However, no publication to date has summarised the overall epidemiological evidence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies (cohort, nested case-control or case-cohort studies), which reported relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between intake of meat subtypes with colorectal, colon or rectal cancer or colorectal adenoma risk. PubMed and ISI Web of Science were searched up until August 1, 2014. Nineteen studies examined meat subtypes (5 beef, 5 pork, 2 lamb, 1 veal and 19 poultry) and associations with colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risk and 4 studies examined associations with adenoma risk (1 beef and 4 poultry). Comparing highest versus lowest intake, beef consumption was associated with an increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.22) and colon cancer (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.44), but no association was found with rectal cancer (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.78 to 1.16). Higher consumption of lamb was also associated with increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.44). No association was observed for pork (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.27), but some between study heterogeneity was observed. No association was observed for poultry consumption and risk of colorectal adenomas or cancer. This meta-analysis suggests that red meat subtypes differ in their association with CRC and its sub sites. Further analysis of data from prospective cohort studies is warranted, especially regarding the role of pork.

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          Most cited references36

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          The impact of dietary and lifestyle risk factors on risk of colorectal cancer: a quantitative overview of the epidemiological evidence.

          Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality and is considered to be largely attributable to inappropriate lifestyle and behavior patterns. The purpose of this review was to undertake a comparison of the strength of the associations between known and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer by conducting 10 independent meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies. Studies published between 1966 and January 2008 were identified through EMBASE and MEDLINE, using a combined text word and MESH heading search strategy. Studies were eligible if they reported estimates of the relative risk for colorectal cancer with any of the following: alcohol, smoking, diabetes, physical activity, meat, fish, poultry, fruits and vegetables. Studies were excluded if the estimates were not adjusted at least for age. Overall, data from 103 cohort studies were included. The risk of colorectal cancer was significantly associated with alcohol: individuals consuming the most alcohol had 60% greater risk of colorectal cancer compared with non- or light drinkers (relative risk 1.56, 95% CI 1.42-1.70). Smoking, diabetes, obesity and high meat intakes were each associated with a significant 20% increased risk of colorectal cancer (compared with individuals in the lowest categories for each) with little evidence of between-study heterogeneity or publication bias. Physical activity was protective against colorectal cancer. Public-health strategies that promote modest alcohol consumption, smoking cessation, weight loss, increased physical activity and moderate consumption of red and processed meat are likely to have significant benefits at the population level for reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer.
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            Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition.

            Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers were documented. We examined the relationship between intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, and fish and colorectal cancer risk using a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, energy (nonfat and fat sources), height, weight, work-related physical activity, smoking status, dietary fiber and folate, and alcohol consumption, stratified by center. A calibration substudy based on 36 994 subjects was used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. All statistical tests were two-sided. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [>160 g/day] versus lowest [ 80 g/day versus <10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.54 to 0.88; Ptrend<.001), but was not related to poultry intake. Correcting for measurement error strengthened the associations between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat intake (per 100-g increase HR = 1.25, 95% CI =1.09 to 1.41, Ptrend = .001 and HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.02, Ptrend = .001 before and after calibration, respectively) and for fish (per 100 g increase HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.87, Ptrend<.001 and HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.77, Ptrend = .003; before and after correction, respectively). In this study population, the absolute risk of development of colorectal cancer within 10 years for a study subject aged 50 years was 1.71% for the highest category of red and processed meat intake and 1.28% for the lowest category of intake and was 1.86% for subjects in the lowest category of fish intake and 1.28% for subjects in the highest category of fish intake. Our data confirm that colorectal cancer risk is positively associated with high consumption of red and processed meat and support an inverse association with fish intake.
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              Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

              Accumulating epidemiologic evidence indicates that high consumption of red meat and of processed meat may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. We quantitatively assessed the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a meta-analysis of prospective studies published through March 2006. Random-effects models were used to pool study results and to assess dose-response relationships. We identified 15 prospective studies on red meat (involving 7,367 cases) and 14 prospective studies on processed meat consumption (7,903 cases). The summary relative risks (RRs) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. the lowest intake categories were 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.42) for red meat and 1.20 (95% CI = 1.11-1.31) for processed meat. The estimated summary RRs were 1.28 (95% CI = 1.18-1.39) for an increase of 120 g/day of red meat and 1.09 (95% CI = 1.05-1.13) for an increase of 30 g/day of processed meat. Consumption of red meat and processed meat was positively associated with risk of both colon and rectal cancer, although the association with red meat appeared to be stronger for rectal cancer. In 3 studies that reported results for subsites in the colon, high consumption of processed meat was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer but not of proximal colon cancer. The results of this meta-analysis of prospective studies support the hypothesis that high consumption of red meat and of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                25583132
                10.1002/ijc.29423

                meat subtypes,colorectal cancer,meta-analysis,poultry,red meat

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