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      Diet-induced obesity causes peripheral and central ghrelin resistance by promoting inflammation


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          Ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, transmits starvation signals to the hypothalamus via the vagus afferent nerve. Peripheral administration of ghrelin does not induce food intake in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. We investigated whether this ghrelin resistance was caused by dysfunction of the vagus afferent pathway. Administration (s.c.) of ghrelin did not induce food intake, suppression of oxygen consumption, electrical activity of the vagal afferent nerve, phosphorylation of ERK2 and AMP-activated protein kinase alpha in the nodose ganglion, or Fos expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of mice fed a HFD for 12 weeks. Administration of anti-ghrelin IgG did not induce suppression of food intake in HFD-fed mice. Expression levels of ghrelin receptor mRNA in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice were reduced. Inflammatory responses, including upregulation of macrophage/microglia markers and inflammatory cytokines, occurred in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. A HFD blunted ghrelin signaling in the nodose ganglion via a mechanism involving in situ activation of inflammation. These results indicate that ghrelin resistance in the obese state may be caused by dysregulation of ghrelin signaling via the vagal afferent.

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          Insulin sensitivity: modulation by nutrients and inflammation.

          Insulin resistance is a major metabolic feature of obesity and is a key factor in the etiology of a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss potential mechanisms by which brief nutrient excess and obesity lead to insulin resistance and propose that these mechanisms of action are different but interrelated. We discuss how pathways that "sense" nutrients within skeletal muscle are readily able to regulate insulin action. We then discuss how obesity leads to insulin resistance via a complex interplay among systemic fatty acid excess, microhypoxia in adipose tissue, ER stress, and inflammation. In particular, we focus on the hypothesis that the macrophage is an important cell type in the propagation of inflammation and induction of insulin resistance in obesity. Overall, we provide our integrative perspective regarding how nutrients and obesity interact to regulate insulin sensitivity.
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            Two defects contribute to hypothalamic leptin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity.

            Obesity in humans and in rodents is usually associated with high circulating leptin levels and leptin resistance. To examine the molecular basis for leptin resistance, we determined the ability of leptin to induce hypothalamic STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling in C57BL/6J mice fed either low-fat or high-fat diets. In mice fed the low-fat diet, leptin activated STAT3 signaling when administered via the intraperitoneal (ip) or the intracerebroventricular (icv) route, with the half-maximal dose being 30-fold less when given by the icv route. The high-fat diet increased body-weight gain and plasma leptin levels. After 4 weeks on the diet, hypothalamic STAT3 signaling after ip leptin administration was equivalent in both diet groups. In contrast, peripherally administered leptin was completely unable to activate hypothalamic STAT3 signaling, as measured by gel shift assay after 15 weeks of high-fat diet. Despite the absence of detectable signaling after peripheral leptin at 15 weeks, the mice fed the high-fat diet retained the capacity to respond to icv leptin, although the magnitude of STAT3 activation was substantially reduced. These results suggest that leptin resistance induced by a high-fat diet evolves during the course of the diet and has at least two independent causes: an apparent defect in access to sites of action in the hypothalamus that markedly limits the ability of peripheral leptin to activate hypothalamic STAT signaling, and an intracellular signaling defect in leptin-responsive hypothalamic neurons that lies upstream of STAT3 activation.
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              The role of the gastric afferent vagal nerve in ghrelin-induced feeding and growth hormone secretion in rats.

              Visceral sensory information is transmitted to the brain through the afferent vagus nerve. Ghrelin, a peptide primarily produced in the stomach, stimulates both feeding and growth hormone (GH) secretion. How stomach-derived ghrelin exerts these central actions is still unknown. Here we determined the role of the gastric afferent vagal nerve in ghrelin's functions. Food intake and GH secretion were examined after an administration of ghrelin intravenously (IV) to rats with vagotomy or perivagal application of capsaicin, a specific afferent neurotoxin. We investigated Fos expression in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-producing and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-producing neurons by immunohistochemistry after administration IV of ghrelin to these rats. The presence of the ghrelin receptor in vagal afferent neurons was assessed by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization histochemistry. A binding study on the vagus nerve by (125)I-ghrelin was performed to determine the transport of the ghrelin receptor from vagus afferent neurons to the periphery. We recorded the electric discharge of gastric vagal afferent induced by ghrelin and compared it with that by cholecystokinin (CCK), an anorectic gut peptide. Blockade of the gastric vagal afferent abolished ghrelin-induced feeding, GH secretion, and activation of NPY-producing and GHRH-producing neurons. Ghrelin receptors were synthesized in vagal afferent neurons and transported to the afferent terminals. Ghrelin suppressed firing of the vagal afferent, whereas CCK stimulated it. This study indicated that the gastric vagal afferent is the major pathway conveying ghrelin's signals for starvation and GH secretion to the brain.

                Author and article information

                J Endocrinol
                J. Endocrinol
                The Journal of Endocrinology
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                July 2015
                27 May 2015
                : 226
                : 1
                : 81-92
                [1 ]Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki , 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Sports and Fitness, Faculty of Wellness, Shigakkan University , 55 Nakoyama, Yokone, Obu, 474-8651, Japan
                [3 ]AMED-CREST, Agency for Medical Research and Development , 1-7-1 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0004, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to M Nakazato; Email: nakazato@ 123456med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp
                © 2015 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

                : 13 May 2015
                : 26 May 2015

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                ghrelin,diet-induced obesity,nodose ganglion,vagus nerve,inflammation
                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                ghrelin, diet-induced obesity, nodose ganglion, vagus nerve, inflammation


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