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      Effects of Simvastatin on Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Role for Glomeruli Protection

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          Abstract

          Aims: To study the effects of simvastatin on oxidative stress in rats with early stage diabetic nephropathy. Methods: 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group (CN), streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats group (DM) and STZ-induced diabetic rats group treated with simvastatin (DM+S). The following parameters were measured at weeks 6 and 12 in similar rats chosen randomly from each group: body and kidney weight, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE), biochemical indexes including blood glucose (GLU), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), serum creatinine (SCr), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) in plasma, lipid peroxidation production as malondialdehyde in plasma (MDAp) and erythrocytes (MDAe), morphology parameters such as glomerular volume (GV) and mesangial area/total glomerular area (M/T). Results: At weeks 6 and 12, GLU and kidney weight to body weight ratio were notably increased in both of the diabetic groups compared with those in the CN group without significant differences between the two diabetic groups. There were no significant differences of SCr, LDL, HDL and TG among all groups within all the experimental time. MDAp and MDAe were significantly increased in both of the diabetic groups, especially at week 12, while SOD, GST and CAT were significantly decreased compared with those in the CN group. At week 12, GV, M/T and UAE were also increased in the two diabetic groups. However, in the DM+S group, changes of lipid peroxidation production, antioxidant enzymes, UAE and GV were less pronounced than those in the DM group. Pearson’s correlation analysis and regression analysis shown that MDAp was increased while SOD, GST and CAT in plasma were decreased with elevation of UAE, GV and M/T. Conclusion: Increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant enzymes in plasma may play a role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Simvastatin may ameliorate these changes to protect kidney from oxidative lesion in diabetes even in the absence of lipid abnormalities.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Estimation of product of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde) in biochemical systems.

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            Contribution of polyol pathway to diabetes-induced oxidative stress.

            Diabetes causes increased oxidative stress, which is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications. However, the source of the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is not clear. It was found that the polyol pathway is the major contributor to oxidative stress in the lenses and nerves of diabetic mice. The first enzyme in the pathway, aldose reductase (AR), reduces glucose to sorbitol, which is then converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). Transgenic mice that overexpress AR specifically in their lenses showed a significant increase in oxidative stress when they became hyperglycemic, as indicated by a decrease in GSH and an increase in malondialdehyde in their lenses. Introducing an SDH-deficient mutation into these transgenic mice significantly normalized the GSH and malondialdehyde levels. These results indicate that both enzymes of the polyol pathway contributed to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in the lens. In the wild-type mice, diabetes caused a significant decrease in GSH in their sciatic nerves, indicative of oxidative stress. In the AR null mutant mice, diabetes did not lead to any decrease in the nerve GSH level. These results indicate that similar to the situation in the lens, AR is also the major contributor to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in the nerve. Although increased flux of glucose through the polyol pathway leads to diabetic lesions in both the lenses and nerve, the mechanisms may be different. AR-induced osmotic stress seems to be the cause of diabetic cataract, whereas AR-induced oxidative stress is probably the cause of neuronal dysfunction.
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              Protein kinase C-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vascular tissues of diabetes: role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase.

              Hyperglycemia seems to be an important causative factor in the development of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the adverse effects of hyperglycemia on vascular cells. Both protein kinase C (PKC) activation and oxidative stress theories have increasingly received attention in recent years. This article shows a PKC-dependent increase in oxidative stress in diabetic vascular tissues. High glucose level stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via a PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in cultured aortic endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and renal mesangial cells. In addition, expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components were shown to be upregulated in vascular tissues and kidney from animal models of diabetes. Furthermore, several agents that were expected to block the mechanism of a PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase clearly inhibited the increased oxidative stress in diabetic animals, as assessed by in vivo electron spin resonance method. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that the PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase may be an essential mechanism responsible for increased oxidative stress in diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2005
                September 2005
                11 May 2005
                : 101
                : 1
                : e1-e8
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
                Article
                85712 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005;101:e1–e8
                10.1159/000085712
                15886498
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 32, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/85712
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Oxidative stress, Diabetic nephropathy, Simvastatin

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