Plasma insulin, pancreatic glucagon and immunoreactive glucagon-like polypeptide of intestinal origin (enteroglucagon) have been measured in 10 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 5 normal subjects. Basal levels and changes following oral glucose (50 g) and an intravenous infusion of arginine (25 g in 30min) have been studied. In patients with chronic pancreatitis the plasma insulin response to oral glucose and intravenous arginine was reduced. Basal pancreatic glucagon was increased in the patients and increased further with oral glucose. During an arginine infusion the pancreatic glucagon showed a brisk early increase greater than that seen in the normal subjects. Basal enteroglucagon levels were significantly increased in chronic pancreatitis but response to oral glucose and arginine infusion were little different from those seen in the normal subjects.