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      Repeated Premature Hemofilter Clotting During Regional Citrate Anticoagulation as Indicator of Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia

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          Purpose: Early clinical signs of heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) are nonspecific and include a sudden drop in the number of platelets as well as formation of arterial and venous thromboses. Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is increasingly used as a very effective modality to prevent filter clotting during renal replacement therapy (RRT). We report the first case where repeated premature filter clotting despite RCA indicated a manifestation of HIT. Materials and Methods: A 71-year old woman admitted to the ICU for a compartment syndrome of the leg developed septic shock with acute kidney injury requiring continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD). Because of unexpected and repeated premature filter clotting during CVVHD using RCA, HIT was suspected. Results: The diagnosis of HIT was confirmed by the presence of IgG antibodies against heparin and platelet factor (PF) 4 complexes and six points in the 4T score. Discontinuation of heparin administration and initiation of systemic anticoagulation with danaparoid sodium resulted in the normalization of platelet count and hemofilter lifetime. Conclusion: RCA does not seem to be sufficient to prevent hemofilter clotting during HIT. Thus, in case of repeated premature filter clotting despite RCA, one should suspect HIT and prompt diagnostic workup as well as a switch to alternative anticoagulation. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Citrate anticoagulation abolishes degranulation of polymorphonuclear cells and platelets and reduces oxidative stress during haemodialysis.

          During haemodialysis (HD), polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and platelets are activated and release various granule products, including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and platelet factor 4 (PF4). MPO triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species, leading to irreversible protein, carbohydrate and lipid modification. PF4 probably also contributes to oxidative stress. As previously shown, HD-induced PMN degranulation is almost completely abolished during citrate anticoagulation, most probably due to its calcium chelation ability. In the present study, apart from HD-induced PMN and platelet degranulation, oxidative stress was analysed during three modes of anticoagulation. Heparin, dalteparin and citrate (HDhep, HDdal and HDcit) were compared in a randomized, crossover fashion in eight chronic HD patients. Multiple blood samples were taken during the third HD session of each modality, from both the afferent and efferent line. Besides the degranulation markers MPO and PF4, various markers of oxidative stress were measured, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carboxymethyllysine (CML). During HDhep and HDdal, marked degranulation was observed shortly after the start of HD. In contrast, during HDcit, PF4 and MPO levels remained unaltered, suggesting no release at all. After 1 week of HDcit, ox-LDL levels were markedly reduced [median 26% (3-65%), P=0.01], if compared with HDhep and HDdal. As regards MDA and CML, no differences were found. This study shows first, that HD-induced PMN and platelet degranulation are early, most probably calcium-dependent processes and, secondly, that the formation of ox-LDL is clearly dependent on the type of anticoagulant applied.
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            A safe citrate anticoagulation protocol with variable treatment efficacy and excellent control of the acid-base status.

            Citrate anticoagulation is an excellent alternative to heparin anticoagulation for critically ill patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. In this article, we provide a safe and an easy-to-handle citrate anticoagulation protocol with variable treatment doses and excellent control of the acid-base status. Prospective observational study. University hospital. One hundred sixty-two patients with acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy were enrolled in the study. A continuous venovenous hemodialysis-based citrate anticoagulation protocol using a 4% trisodium solution, a specially designed dialysate fluid, and a continuous calcium infusion were used. The study period was 6 days. Hemofilters were changed routinely after 72 hours of treatment. The patients were grouped according to body weight, with patients below 60 kg body weight in group 1, patients with at least 60 kg and up to 90 kg body weight in group 2, and patients with a body weight of above 90 kg in group 3. Dialysate flow was adapted according to body size and matched approximately 2 L/hr for a patient with average body size. Blood flow, citrate flow, and calcium flow were adjusted according to the dialysate flow used. Median filter run time was 61.5 hours (interquartile range: 34.5-81.1 hours). Only 5% of all hemofilters had to be changed because of clotting. The prescribed treatment dose was achieved in all patients. Acid-base and electrolyte control were excellent in all groups. In the rare cases of metabolic disarrangement during citrate anticoagulation, acid-base values were rapidly corrected by modifying either the dialysate flow or alternatively the blood flow rate. Eight patients (5%) developed signs of citrate accumulation indicated by an increase of the total calcium >3 mmol/L or a need for high calcium substitution. We provide a safe and an easy-to-handle citrate anticoagulation protocol that allows an excellent acid-base and electrolyte control in critically ill patients with acute renal failure. The protocol can be adapted to patients' need, allowing a wide spectrum of treatment doses.
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              When heparins promote thrombosis: review of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.


                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                December 2014
                20 November 2014
                : 38
                : 2
                : 127-130
                aDivision of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck and bCounty Hospital Hall, Hall in Tyrol, Austria
                Author notes
                *Professor Michael Joannidis, Division of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, AT-6020 Innsbruck (Austria), E-Mail
                366125 Blood Purif 2014;38:127-130
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, Pages: 4
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