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      Asiatic acid protests against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via modulation of glycometabolism in rat cardiomyocyte

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          Abstract

          Background

          Asiatic acid is a reported glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor derived from the tropical medicinal plant Centella asiatica and exhibits myocardial protection both in vivo and in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of asiatic acid on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury and investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with the modulation of glycometabolism in cardiomyocyte.

          Materials and methods

          The rats were subjected to MI/R with or without asiatic acid pretreatment. The cardiac function indexes, the size of myocardial infarction, and plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities were detected. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL assay. The Akt/GSK-3β activation was measured by Western blot. The glycogen content, plasma glucose and lactate concentrations were determined following MI/R. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ and GLUT4 were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively.

          Results

          Asiatic acid pretreatment significantly improved the cardiac function indexes, attenuated the size of myocardial infarction, reduced LDH and CK activities, and suppressed cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI/R. Asiatic acid activated Akt/GSK-3β signal pathway in the myocardium following MI/R injury. In addition, asiatic acid effectively suppressed MI/R-induced glycogen breakdown and inhibited the elevation of plasma glucose and lactate concentrations. Asiatic acid treatment increased PPARγ expression at both mRNA and protein levels, and promoted the translocation of GLUT4 to plasma membrane after MI/R insult. However, the effects mediated by asiatic acid on glycometabolism and GLUT4 translocation were reversed by the administration of LY294002, the Akt inhibitor.

          Conclusion

          These findings demonstrated that asiatic acid exerts beneficial effects on MI/R injury in rats. This protection may be related to the modulation of glycometabolism via Akt-dependent GLUT4 translocation and PPARγ activation in ischemic cardiomyocyte.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Mechanisms underlying acute protection from cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

          Mitochondria play an important role in cell death and cardioprotection. During ischemia, when ATP is progressively depleted, ion pumps cannot function resulting in a rise in calcium (Ca(2+)), which further accelerates ATP depletion. The rise in Ca(2+) during ischemia and reperfusion leads to mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation, particularly during reperfusion when oxygen is reintroduced. Reintroduction of oxygen allows generation of ATP; however, damage to the electron transport chain results in increased mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and increased ROS can result in opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which further compromises cellular energetics. The resultant low ATP and altered ion homeostasis result in rupture of the plasma membrane and cell death. Mitochondria have long been proposed as central players in cell death, since the mitochondria are central to synthesis of both ATP and ROS and since mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca(2+) overload are key components of cell death. Many cardioprotective mechanisms converge on the mitochondria to reduce cell death. Reducing Ca(2+) overload and reducing ROS have both been reported to reduce ischemic injury. Preconditioning activates a number of signaling pathways that reduce Ca(2+) overload and reduce activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. The mitochondrial targets of cardioprotective signals are discussed in detail.
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            Targeting fatty acid and carbohydrate oxidation--a novel therapeutic intervention in the ischemic and failing heart.

            Cardiac ischemia and its consequences including heart failure, which itself has emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries are accompanied by complex alterations in myocardial energy substrate metabolism. In contrast to the normal heart, where fatty acid and glucose metabolism are tightly regulated, the dynamic relationship between fatty acid β-oxidation and glucose oxidation is perturbed in ischemic and ischemic-reperfused hearts, as well as in the failing heart. These metabolic alterations negatively impact both cardiac efficiency and function. Specifically there is an increased reliance on glycolysis during ischemia and fatty acid β-oxidation during reperfusion following ischemia as sources of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Depending on the severity of heart failure, the contribution of overall myocardial oxidative metabolism (fatty acid β-oxidation and glucose oxidation) to adenosine triphosphate production can be depressed, while that of glycolysis can be increased. Nonetheless, the balance between fatty acid β-oxidation and glucose oxidation is amenable to pharmacological intervention at multiple levels of each metabolic pathway. This review will focus on the pathways of cardiac fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and the metabolic phenotypes of ischemic and ischemic/reperfused hearts, as well as the metabolic phenotype of the failing heart. Furthermore, as energy substrate metabolism has emerged as a novel therapeutic intervention in these cardiac pathologies, this review will describe the mechanistic bases and rationale for the use of pharmacological agents that modify energy substrate metabolism to improve cardiac function in the ischemic and failing heart. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria and Cardioprotection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Tissue-specific role of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in glucose homeostasis and insulin action.

              Dysregulation of the protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GSK-3 protein expression and kinase activity are elevated in diabetes, while selective GSK-3 inhibitors have shown promise as modulators of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. There are two GSK-3 isoforms in mammals, GSK-3alpha and GSK-3beta. Mice engineered to lack GSK-3beta die in late embryogenesis from liver apoptosis, whereas mice engineered to lack GSK-3alpha are viable and exhibit improved insulin sensitivity and hepatic glucose homeostasis. To assess the potential role of GSK-3beta in insulin function, a conditional gene-targeting approach whereby mice in which expression of GSK-3beta was specifically ablated within insulin-sensitive tissues were generated was undertaken. Liver-specific GSK-3beta knockout mice are viable and glucose and insulin tolerant and display "normal" metabolic characteristics and insulin signaling. Mice lacking expression of GSK-3beta in skeletal muscle are also viable but, in contrast to the liver-deleted animals, display improved glucose tolerance that is coupled with enhanced insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase regulation and glycogen deposition. These data indicate that there are not only distinct roles for GSK-3alpha and GSK-3beta within the adult but also tissue-specific phenotypes associated with each of these isoforms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                25 October 2018
                : 12
                : 3573-3582
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China, qianyisong@ 123456ncu.edu.cn ; hongboxin@ 123456yahoo.com
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330046, China
                [3 ]Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yisong Qian; Hong-Bo Xin, Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, 1299 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031, Chinam, Email qianyisong@ 123456ncu.edu.cn ; hongboxin@ 123456yahoo.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-12-3573
                10.2147/DDDT.S175116
                6207266
                30498333
                © 2018 Dai et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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