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Using prosody to avoid ambiguity: Effects of speaker awareness and referential context

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Journal of Memory and Language

Elsevier BV

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      Involuntary covert orienting is contingent on attentional control settings.

      Four experiments tested a new hypothesis that involuntary attention shifts are contingent on the relationship between the properties of the eliciting event and the properties required for task performance. In a variant of the spatial cuing paradigm, the relation between cue property and the property useful in locating the target was systematically manipulated. In Experiment 1, invalid abrupt-onset precues produced costs for targets characterized by an abrupt onset but not for targets characterized by a discontinuity in color. In Experiment 2, invalid color precues produced greater costs for color targets than for abrupt-onset targets. Experiment 3 provided converging evidence for this pattern. Experiment 4 investigated the boundary conditions and time course for attention shifts elicited by color discontinuities. The results of these experiments suggest that attention capture is contingent on attentional control settings induced by task demands.
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        Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension

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          Incremental interpretation at verbs: restricting the domain of subsequent reference.

          Participants' eye movements were recorded as they inspected a semi-realistic visual scene showing a boy, a cake, and various distractor objects. Whilst viewing this scene, they heard sentences such as 'the boy will move the cake' or 'the boy will eat the cake'. The cake was the only edible object portrayed in the scene. In each of two experiments, the onset of saccadic eye movements to the target object (the cake) was significantly later in the move condition than in the eat condition; saccades to the target were launched after the onset of the spoken word cake in the move condition, but before its onset in the eat condition. The results suggest that information at the verb can be used to restrict the domain within the context to which subsequent reference will be made by the (as yet unencountered) post-verbal grammatical object. The data support a hypothesis in which sentence processing is driven by the predictive relationships between verbs, their syntactic arguments, and the real-world contexts in which they occur.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Journal of Memory and Language
            Journal of Memory and Language
            Elsevier BV
            0749596X
            January 2003
            January 2003
            : 48
            : 1
            : 103-130
            10.1016/S0749-596X(02)00519-3
            © 2003

            http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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