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      Oxidative Damage to Lens in Culture: Reversibility by Pyruvate and Ethyl Pyruvate

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      Ophthalmologica

      S. Karger AG

      Oxidative stress, Cataract reversal, Pyruvate, cataract protection

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          Abstract

          It is generally believed that prophylactic intake of antioxidants is beneficial in delaying the onset of some aging manifestations such as cataract. However, whether such a supplementation will also be effective if the pathophysiogical process has already set in remains a largely open question. We examined this possibility with lens changes leading to cataract formation, since cataract genesis is intimately related to a continued generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the aqueous humor. Since the formation of cataract is a well-defined progressive disease, starting with an early refractive change and leading to gradual enhancement of opacification, we hypothesized that even a belated start with an appropriate anti-oxidant could halt the pathological process and delay cataract maturation and vision impairment. Using lens cultures, we tested this hypothesis with pyruvate, known to be an effective and highly potent ROS scavenger. Adding pyruvate to the culture medium after lenses had sustained a 50% damage was significantly effective in preventing progress. This was apparent by better maintenance of the active rubidium transport activity in these lenses compared to controls without pyruvate treatment. Glutathione levels were also higher in the pyruvate group.

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          Most cited references 18

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          The biology of oxygen radicals

           I Fridovich (1978)
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            [1] Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease: An overview

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              Light-induced damage to ocular lens cation pump: prevention by vitamin C.

              The cation pump activity of the ocular lens was damaged by exposure to light in the presence of riboflavin phosphate. The intensity of light was similar to that used for reading purposes. The observed light-induced damage was due to superoxide or its derivatives, the superoxide being produced photochemically. Such damage was attenuated by vitamin C in amounts comparable to that in the aqueous humor. Thus, a new role for the high ascorbate level present in the anterior chamber fluid and the lens has been suggested. Ascorbate in other tissues also might have this novel physiological function of protecting against damage due to superoxide and its derivatives produced during normal cellular oxidation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2006
                December 2005
                21 December 2005
                : 220
                : 1
                : 52-57
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md., USA
                Article
                89275 Ophthalmologica 2006;220:52–57
                10.1159/000089275
                16374049
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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