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      Innovatives SARS-CoV-2-Krisenmanagement im öffentlichen Gesundheitswesen: Corona-Dashboard und Abwasserfrühwarnsystem am Beispiel Berchtesgadener Land Translated title: Innovative SARS-CoV-2 crisis management in the public health sector: Corona dashboard and wastewater surveillance using the example of Berchtesgadener Land, Germany

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          Abstract

          Hintergrund

          Eine infektiologische Krisensituation wie die SARS-CoV-2-Pandemie stellte die Verwaltungsstrukturen des öffentlichen Gesundheitsdienstes vor erhebliche Herausforderungen, die abhängig von der personellen und digitalen Ausstattung in einer unterschiedlichen Effizienz des Ausbruchsmanagements resultierten. Die Einbindung von innovativen Instrumenten der Pandemiebekämpfung, wie Clusternachverfolgung, Risikogruppentestungen oder wie z. B. die von der EU-Kommission empfohlene Einbindung des Abwassermonitorings, wurde dadurch maßgeblich erschwert.

          Ziel

          In dieser Fallstudie im Berchtesgadener Land stellen wir die Einbindung eines flächendeckenden georeferenzierten Abwassermonitorings vor, das seit Nov. 2020 95 % der gesamten Bevölkerung erfasst.

          Methoden

          Für eine flächendeckende Erfassung erfolgte die Probennahme an 2 Tagen pro Woche an 9 kommunalen Kläranlagen und zusätzlich direkt aus der Kanalisation an 3 Standorten. Die Abwasserproben wurden direkt mittels Zentrifugation zur Feststoffabtrennung aufbereitet und über eine digitale Droplet Polymerase-Kettenreaktion (PCR) 4 spezifische Gene von SARS-CoV‑2 erfasst und quantifiziert.

          Ergebnisse

          Die Einbindung des georeferenzierten Abwassermonitorings war erfolgreich. Die Abwasserbefunde werden für jede Gemeinde mit den Inzidenzen pro 100.000 Einwohnern dargestellt. Änderungen im Infektionsgeschehen sind 10 Tage vor den offiziellen Fallzahlen mit einer Sensitivität von ca. 20 pro 100.000 Einwohner erkennbar.

          Diskussion

          Die Integration dieser innovativen Ansätze in eine umfassende Lageführung mittels eines digitalen Dashboards und der Etablierung eines Frühwarnsystems anhand eines quantitativen Abwassermonitorings resultierte im Landkreis Berchtesgadener Land in einem sehr effizienten, proaktiven Krisenmanagement. Dieses kann als Blaupause für andere Kommunen in Deutschland dienen.

          Translated abstract

          Background

          The rise of an infectious disease crisis such as the SARS-CoV‑2 pandemic posed significant challenges for the administrative structures of the public health service, which resulted in varying levels of efficiency in outbreak management as a function of staffing and digital resources. This substantially impeded the integration of innovative pandemic outbreak management tools. Innovative crisis management, such as cluster tracking, risk group testing, georeferencing, or the integration of wastewater surveillance recommended by the EU Commission, was made significantly more difficult.

          Aim

          In this case study in Berchtesgadener Land, we present the integration of an area-wide georeferenced wastewater surveillance system that captured 95% of the entire population since November 2020.

          Methodology

          Sampling occurred twice a week at nine municipal wastewater treatment plants and directly from the main sewer at three locations. Samples were pre-treated by centrifugation and subsequently analyzed by digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting four specific genes of SARS-CoV‑2.

          Results

          The integration of an area-wide georeferenced wastewater surveillance system was successful. Wastewater occurrences are plotted for each municipality against cumulative infections over seven days per 100,000 inhabitants. Changes in the infection pattern in individual communities are noticeable ten days ahead of the official case numbers with a sensitivity of approximately 20 in 100,000 inhabitants.

          Discussion

          The integration of this innovative approach to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation by employing a digital dashboard and the use of an early warning system via quantitative wastewater surveillance resulted in very efficient, proactive management, which might serve as a blueprint for other municipalities in Germany.

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          Most cited references 17

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          An advocacy coalition framework of policy change and the role of policy-oriented learning therein

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            Presence of SARS-Coronavirus-2 RNA in Sewage and Correlation with Reported COVID-19 Prevalence in the Early Stage of the Epidemic in The Netherlands

            In the current COVID-19 pandemic, a significant proportion of cases shed SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with their faeces. To determine if SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present in sewage during the emergence of COVID-19 in The Netherlands, sewage samples of six cities and the airport were tested using four qRT-PCR assays, three targeting the nucleocapsid gene (N1–N3) and one the envelope gene (E). No SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on February 6, 3 weeks before the first Dutch case was reported. On March 4/5, one or more gene fragments were detected in sewage of three sites, in concentrations of 2.6–30 gene copies per mL. In Amersfoort, N3 was detected in sewage 6 days before the first cases were reported. As the prevalence of COVID-19 in these cities increased in March, the RNA signal detected by each qRT-PCR assay increased, for N1–N3 up to 790–2200 gene copies per mL. This increase correlated significantly with the increase in reported COVID-19 prevalence. The detection of the virus RNA in sewage, even when the COVID-19 prevalence is low, and the correlation between concentration in sewage and reported prevalence of COVID-19, indicate that sewage surveillance could be a sensitive tool to monitor the circulation of the virus in the population.
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              Geographical tracking and mapping of coronavirus disease COVID-19/severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic and associated events around the world: how 21st century GIS technologies are supporting the global fight against outbreaks and epidemics

              In December 2019, a new virus (initially called ‘Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV’ and later renamed to SARS-CoV-2) causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (coronavirus disease COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread to other parts of China and other countries around the world, despite China’s massive efforts to contain the disease within Hubei. As with the original SARS-CoV epidemic of 2002/2003 and with seasonal influenza, geographic information systems and methods, including, among other application possibilities, online real-or near-real-time mapping of disease cases and of social media reactions to disease spread, predictive risk mapping using population travel data, and tracing and mapping super-spreader trajectories and contacts across space and time, are proving indispensable for timely and effective epidemic monitoring and response. This paper offers pointers to, and describes, a range of practical online/mobile GIS and mapping dashboards and applications for tracking the 2019/2020 coronavirus epidemic and associated events as they unfold around the world. Some of these dashboards and applications are receiving data updates in near-real-time (at the time of writing), and one of them is meant for individual users (in China) to check if the app user has had any close contact with a person confirmed or suspected to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the recent past. We also discuss additional ways GIS can support the fight against infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jdrewes@tum.de
                Journal
                Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz
                Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz
                Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                1436-9990
                1437-1588
                1 October 2021
                1 October 2021
                : 1-11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.418510.9, ISNI 0000 0004 0636 4534, VI-2, Medical Intelligence & Information (MI2), , Kommando Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr, ; München, Deutschland
                [2 ]Landratsamt Berchtesgadener Land, Bad Reichenhall, Deutschland
                [3 ]GRID grid.6936.a, ISNI 0000000123222966, Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, , Technische Universität München, ; Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching, Deutschland
                [4 ]GRID grid.509525.e, TZW: DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, ; Karlsruhe, Deutschland
                Article
                3425
                10.1007/s00103-021-03425-7
                8485315
                34596701
                0b5bae07-650a-48f1-af95-096093ac4c37
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access Dieser Artikel wird unter der Creative Commons Namensnennung 4.0 International Lizenz veröffentlicht, welche die Nutzung, Vervielfältigung, Bearbeitung, Verbreitung und Wiedergabe in jeglichem Medium und Format erlaubt, sofern Sie den/die ursprünglichen Autor(en) und die Quelle ordnungsgemäß nennen, einen Link zur Creative Commons Lizenz beifügen und angeben, ob Änderungen vorgenommen wurden.

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                Funding
                Funded by: Technische Universität München (1025)
                Categories
                Originalien und Übersichten

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