Since time immemorial, plant derived natural products have been used for the treatment of various human diseases before the intervention of modern medicine. The basis of modern medicine is still being inspired from traditional medicine and therapies. However, despite their tremendous therapeutic potential, these natural drugs often have poor bioavailability, metabolic instability, and aqueous insolubility. These factors greatly impede a natural drug’s commercialization potential as a mainstream medicine. Therefore, the development of nanocarrier drug delivery systems is indispensable in overcoming the various constraints of the bottlenecks which occur with natural drugs. Of particular interest in this review are four plant materials endogenous to China with the common names of barrenwort or horny goat weed ( Epimedium), Shu Di Huang ( Rehmannia glutinosa, RG), ginseng ( Panax ginseng), and Dong Quai or female ginseng ( Angelica sinensis, AS), each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses as has been originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in Asia. The integration of natural drugs from the East and nanocarrier drug delivery systems developed from the West is paving the way towards further accurate and efficient medicine therapy. We further discuss the potential benefits of these plants and the enhancement of their therapeutic efficacy by nanotechnology intervention.