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A new Schiff base coordinated copper(II) compound induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in gastric cancer

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      Abstract

      Background

      Gastric cancer, as a multifactorial disorders, shows cytological and architectural heterogeneity compared to other gastrointestinal cancers, making it therapeutically challenging. Cisplatin is generally used in clinic for gastric cancer treatment but with toxic side effects and develops resistance. Anti-tumor properties of copper and its coordinated compounds have been explored intensively in recent years.

      Methods

      In this study, we synthesized a novel Schiff base copper coordinated compound (SBCCC) and examined its antitumor effects in two gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and BGC-823 as well as a mouse model of gastric cancer.

      Results

      The results show that SBCCC can significantly inhibit the proliferation of gastric cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 of SBCCC in SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells is 1 μM, which is much less than cisplatin’s IC50. SBCCC induces apoptosis and causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. SBCCC induces apoptosis via multiple pathways including inhibition of NF-κB, ROS production and autophagy.

      Conclusions

      The synthesized SBCCC induced cancer cell death via inhibition of NF-κB, ROS production and autophagy. The multiple cell-killing mechanisms were important to overcome therapeutic failure because of multidrug-resistance of cancer cells. SBCCC, with a lower IC50 compared to cisplatin, could render it the potential to overcome the side-effect for clinical application.

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      Most cited references 44

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      Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008.

      Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
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        Cancer Statistics, 2017.

        Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2017, 1,688,780 new cancer cases and 600,920 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. For all sites combined, the cancer incidence rate is 20% higher in men than in women, while the cancer death rate is 40% higher. However, sex disparities vary by cancer type. For example, thyroid cancer incidence rates are 3-fold higher in women than in men (21 vs 7 per 100,000 population), despite equivalent death rates (0.5 per 100,000 population), largely reflecting sex differences in the "epidemic of diagnosis." Over the past decade of available data, the overall cancer incidence rate (2004-2013) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2005-2014) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. From 1991 to 2014, the overall cancer death rate dropped 25%, translating to approximately 2,143,200 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Although the cancer death rate was 15% higher in blacks than in whites in 2014, increasing access to care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act may expedite the narrowing racial gap; from 2010 to 2015, the proportion of blacks who were uninsured halved, from 21% to 11%, as it did for Hispanics (31% to 16%). Gains in coverage for traditionally underserved Americans will facilitate the broader application of existing cancer control knowledge across every segment of the population. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:7-30. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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          The mitochondrial membrane potential (deltapsi(m)) in apoptosis; an update.

           T. D. Grubb,  J Ly,  A Lawen (2003)
          Mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to participate in the induction of apoptosis and has even been suggested to be central to the apoptotic pathway. Indeed, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore has been demonstrated to induce depolarization of the transmembrane potential (deltapsi(m)), release of apoptogenic factors and loss of oxidative phosphorylation. In some apoptotic systems, loss of deltapsi(m) may be an early event in the apoptotic process. However, there are emerging data suggesting that, depending on the model of apoptosis, the loss of deltapsi(m) may not be an early requirement for apoptosis, but on the contrary may be a consequence of the apoptotic-signaling pathway. Furthermore, to add to these conflicting data, loss of deltapsi(m) has been demonstrated to not be required for cytochrome c release, whereas release of apoptosis inducing factor AIF is dependent upon disruption of deltapsi(m) early in the apoptotic pathway. Together, the existing literature suggests that depending on the cell system under investigation and the apoptotic stimuli used, dissipation of deltapsi(m) may or may not be an early event in the apoptotic pathway. Discrepancies in this area of apoptosis research may be attributed to the fluorochromes used to detect deltapsi(m). Differential degrees of sensitivity of these fluorochromes exist, and there are also important factors that contribute to their ability to accurately discriminate changes in deltapsi(m).
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]GRID grid.430605.4, Department of Gastroenterology, , The First Hospital of Jilin University, ; No. 71. Xinmin Street, Changchun, 130021 Jilin China
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1760 5735, GRID grid.64924.3d, Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas Surgery, The First Hospital, , Jilin University, ; Changchun, Jilin China
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1760 5735, GRID grid.64924.3d, College of Basic Medical Science, , Jilin University, ; Changchun, 130021 China
            [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2113 1622, GRID grid.266623.5, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, , University of Louisville, ; Louisville, KY 40202 USA
            Contributors
            zn0972@163.com
            xingkailiu@foxmail.com
            357153166@qq.com
            jingzhuzhang@163.com
            466634002@qq.com
            +86-431-88783196 , 13604334181@163.com
            +86-431-88782594 , 514329822@qq.com
            yan.li@louisville.edu
            Journal
            Cancer Cell Int
            Cancer Cell Int
            Cancer Cell International
            BioMed Central (London )
            1475-2867
            3 April 2019
            3 April 2019
            2019
            : 19
            6448317 801 10.1186/s12935-019-0801-6
            © The Author(s) 2019

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Funding
            Funded by: Science and Technology Development Planning of Jilin Province
            Award ID: (#20130206063YY
            Award ID: #20150204006YY
            Award Recipient :
            Funded by: Project of Science and Technology Department of Jilin Province
            Award ID: (#20140414048GH
            Award Recipient :
            Funded by: Health Department of Jilin Province
            Award ID: (#2015Q011
            Award Recipient :
            Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
            Award ID: (#81472662
            Award ID: #81401581
            Award Recipient :
            Funded by: Project of Education Department of Jilin Province
            Award ID: (#2016453
            Award ID: #2016482
            Award Recipient :
            Funded by: Norman Bethune Program of Jilin University
            Award ID: (#2012219
            Award ID: #2015208
            Award Recipient :
            Categories
            Primary Research
            Custom metadata
            © The Author(s) 2019

            Oncology & Radiotherapy

            schiff base copper coordination compound, nf-κb, autophagy, ros

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