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      Efficacy of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine at Completion of Blinded Phase

      research-article
      , M.D., , M.D. , , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , D.O., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , Ph.D., , Ph.D., , Ph.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , D.O., , M.D., , M.D., , M.Sc., , Ph.D., , Ph.D., , M.D., , M.Sc., , Ph.D., , M.D., Ph.D., , Ph.D., , Ph.D., , M.D. *
      The New England Journal of Medicine
      Massachusetts Medical Society
      Keyword part (code): 18Keyword part (keyword): Infectious DiseaseKeyword part (code): 18_2Keyword part (keyword): VaccinesKeyword part (code): 18_6Keyword part (keyword): Viral InfectionsKeyword part (code): 18_12Keyword part (keyword): Coronavirus , 18, Infectious Disease, Keyword part (code): 18_2Keyword part (keyword): VaccinesKeyword part (code): 18_6Keyword part (keyword): Viral InfectionsKeyword part (code): 18_12Keyword part (keyword): Coronavirus , 18_2, Vaccines, 18_6, Viral Infections, 18_12, Coronavirus

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          Abstract

          Background

          At interim analysis in a phase 3, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). After emergency use of the vaccine was authorized, the protocol was amended to include an open-label phase. Final analyses of efficacy and safety data from the blinded phase of the trial are reported.

          Methods

          We enrolled volunteers who were at high risk for Covid-19 or its complications; participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 μg) or placebo, 28 days apart, at 99 centers across the United States. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The data cutoff date was March 26, 2021.

          Results

          The trial enrolled 30,415 participants; 15,209 were assigned to receive the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and 15,206 to receive placebo. More than 96% of participants received both injections, 2.3% had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline, and the median follow-up was 5.3 months in the blinded phase. Vaccine efficacy in preventing Covid-19 illness was 93.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.0 to 94.8), with 55 confirmed cases in the mRNA-1273 group (9.6 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 7.2 to 12.5) and 744 in the placebo group (136.6 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 127.0 to 146.8). The efficacy in preventing severe disease was 98.2% (95% CI, 92.8 to 99.6), with 2 cases in the mRNA-1273 group and 106 in the placebo group, and the efficacy in preventing asymptomatic infection starting 14 days after the second injection was 63.0% (95% CI, 56.6 to 68.5), with 214 cases in the mRNA-1273 group and 498 in the placebo group. Vaccine efficacy was consistent across ethnic and racial groups, age groups, and participants with coexisting conditions. No safety concerns were identified.

          Conclusions

          The mRNA-1273 vaccine continued to be efficacious in preventing Covid-19 illness and severe disease at more than 5 months, with an acceptable safety profile, and protection against asymptomatic infection was observed. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.)

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          Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine

          Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have afflicted tens of millions of people in a worldwide pandemic. Safe and effective vaccines are needed urgently. Methods In an ongoing multinational, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, pivotal efficacy trial, we randomly assigned persons 16 years of age or older in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses, 21 days apart, of either placebo or the BNT162b2 vaccine candidate (30 μg per dose). BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle–formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine that encodes a prefusion stabilized, membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein. The primary end points were efficacy of the vaccine against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 and safety. Results A total of 43,548 participants underwent randomization, of whom 43,448 received injections: 21,720 with BNT162b2 and 21,728 with placebo. There were 8 cases of Covid-19 with onset at least 7 days after the second dose among participants assigned to receive BNT162b2 and 162 cases among those assigned to placebo; BNT162b2 was 95% effective in preventing Covid-19 (95% credible interval, 90.3 to 97.6). Similar vaccine efficacy (generally 90 to 100%) was observed across subgroups defined by age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline body-mass index, and the presence of coexisting conditions. Among 10 cases of severe Covid-19 with onset after the first dose, 9 occurred in placebo recipients and 1 in a BNT162b2 recipient. The safety profile of BNT162b2 was characterized by short-term, mild-to-moderate pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and was similar in the vaccine and placebo groups. Conclusions A two-dose regimen of BNT162b2 conferred 95% protection against Covid-19 in persons 16 years of age or older. Safety over a median of 2 months was similar to that of other viral vaccines. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368728.)
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            Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

            Abstract Background Vaccines are needed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and to protect persons who are at high risk for complications. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle–encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes Covid-19. Methods This phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 99 centers across the United States. Persons at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection or its complications were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 μg) or placebo 28 days apart. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Results The trial enrolled 30,420 volunteers who were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either vaccine or placebo (15,210 participants in each group). More than 96% of participants received both injections, and 2.2% had evidence (serologic, virologic, or both) of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline. Symptomatic Covid-19 illness was confirmed in 185 participants in the placebo group (56.5 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 48.7 to 65.3) and in 11 participants in the mRNA-1273 group (3.3 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.7 to 6.0); vaccine efficacy was 94.1% (95% CI, 89.3 to 96.8%; P<0.001). Efficacy was similar across key secondary analyses, including assessment 14 days after the first dose, analyses that included participants who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline, and analyses in participants 65 years of age or older. Severe Covid-19 occurred in 30 participants, with one fatality; all 30 were in the placebo group. Moderate, transient reactogenicity after vaccination occurred more frequently in the mRNA-1273 group. Serious adverse events were rare, and the incidence was similar in the two groups. Conclusions The mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy at preventing Covid-19 illness, including severe disease. Aside from transient local and systemic reactions, no safety concerns were identified. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.)
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              BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Mass Vaccination Setting

              Abstract Background As mass vaccination campaigns against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) commence worldwide, vaccine effectiveness needs to be assessed for a range of outcomes across diverse populations in a noncontrolled setting. In this study, data from Israel’s largest health care organization were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Methods All persons who were newly vaccinated during the period from December 20, 2020, to February 1, 2021, were matched to unvaccinated controls in a 1:1 ratio according to demographic and clinical characteristics. Study outcomes included documented infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), symptomatic Covid-19, Covid-19–related hospitalization, severe illness, and death. We estimated vaccine effectiveness for each outcome as one minus the risk ratio, using the Kaplan–Meier estimator. Results Each study group included 596,618 persons. Estimated vaccine effectiveness for the study outcomes at days 14 through 20 after the first dose and at 7 or more days after the second dose was as follows: for documented infection, 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40 to 51) and 92% (95% CI, 88 to 95); for symptomatic Covid-19, 57% (95% CI, 50 to 63) and 94% (95% CI, 87 to 98); for hospitalization, 74% (95% CI, 56 to 86) and 87% (95% CI, 55 to 100); and for severe disease, 62% (95% CI, 39 to 80) and 92% (95% CI, 75 to 100), respectively. Estimated effectiveness in preventing death from Covid-19 was 72% (95% CI, 19 to 100) for days 14 through 20 after the first dose. Estimated effectiveness in specific subpopulations assessed for documented infection and symptomatic Covid-19 was consistent across age groups, with potentially slightly lower effectiveness in persons with multiple coexisting conditions. Conclusions This study in a nationwide mass vaccination setting suggests that the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine is effective for a wide range of Covid-19–related outcomes, a finding consistent with that of the randomized trial.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                N Engl J Med
                N Engl J Med
                nejm
                The New England Journal of Medicine
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                22 September 2021
                : NEJMoa2113017
                Affiliations
                From Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.), and Javara, The Woodlands (C.K.) — both in Texas; Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston (L.R.B.), and Moderna, Cambridge (A.A., H.C., W.D., S.H., B.L., D.M., R.P., F.S., J.E.T., H.Z., J.M.) — both in Massachusetts; Meridian Clinical Research, Baton Rouge, LA (B.E., F.E.); University of Miami, Miami (S.D.-L.), and DeLand Clinical Research Unit, DeLand (B.R.) — both in Florida; University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh (J.M.M.); Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (E.J.A.); University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (T.B.C.); University of California, Los Angeles (J.C.), and Wake Research–Medical Center for Clinical Research, San Diego (L.H.-C.) — both in California; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute (L.A.J.), and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (L.C., P.G., H.J.) — both in Seattle; University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati (C.J.F.); Henry Ford Health System, Detroit (M.Z.); Vitalink Research, Greenville, SC (G.F.); Clinical Research Center of Nevada, Wake Research, Las Vegas (M.L.); and the University of Maryland, College Park (K.M.N.), and the Vaccine Research Center (J.R.M., J.E.L., B.S.G.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (D.F., M.M., L.P.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda — both in Maryland.
                Author notes
                Address reprint requests to Dr. El Sahly at 1 Baylor Plaza, Departments of Molecular Virology and Microbiology and Medicine, BCM-MS280, Houston, TX, 77030, or at hana.elsahly@ 123456bcm.edu , or to Dr. Baden at the Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 15 Francis St., PBB-A4, Boston, MA 02115, or at lbaden@ 123456bwh.harvard.edu .
                [*]

                The members of the COVE Study Group are listed in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org.

                Drs. El Sahly and Baden contributed equally to this article.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0489-0074
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1576-4420
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5862-6530
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1785-0218
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2179-2436
                Article
                NJ202109223851902
                10.1056/NEJMoa2113017
                8482810
                34551225
                0b6abb67-de21-480b-92fd-eda72d0db0f0
                Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use, except commercial resale, and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgment of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the Covid-19 pandemic or until revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, subject to existing copyright protections.

                History
                Funding
                Funded by: Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100012399;
                Award ID: contract 75A50120C00034
                Funded by: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000060;
                Award ID: UM1 AI 68614; UM1 AI 68635; UM1 AI 68618;UM1 AI 68
                Funded by: Moderna, FundRef http://dx.doi.org/Moderna;
                Categories
                Original Article
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                2021-09-22T17:00:00-04:00
                2021
                09
                22
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