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      Chemistries and processes for the conversion of ethanol into middle-distillate fuels

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          Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts, and engineering.

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            Catalytic conversion of biomass to biofuels

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              Integrated catalytic conversion of gamma-valerolactone to liquid alkenes for transportation fuels.

              Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels remains a challenging and important line of research. We report a strategy by which aqueous solutions of gamma-valerolactone (GVL), produced from biomass-derived carbohydrates, can be converted to liquid alkenes in the molecular weight range appropriate for transportation fuels by an integrated catalytic system that does not require an external source of hydrogen. The GVL feed undergoes decarboxylation at elevated pressures (e.g., 36 bar) over a silica/alumina catalyst to produce a gas stream composed of equimolar amounts of butene and carbon dioxide. This stream is fed directly to an oligomerization reactor containing an acid catalyst (e.g., H ZSM-5, Amberlyst-70), which couples butene monomers to form condensable alkenes with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline and/or jet fuel applications. The effluent gaseous stream of CO2 at elevated pressure can potentially be captured and then treated or sequestered to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the process.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Chemistry
                Nat Rev Chem
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2397-3358
                April 2019
                March 20 2019
                April 2019
                : 3
                : 4
                : 223-249
                Article
                10.1038/s41570-019-0084-4
                © 2019

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