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      Role of the PDZ Scaffolding Protein in Tubule Cells in Maintenance of Polarised Function

      ,

      Cardiorenal Medicine

      S. Karger AG

      PDZ domain, Tubule cell, Epithelium, EBP50, NHE3

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          Abstract

          Polarized tubule epithelial cell functions are dependent on correct delivery of effector proteins to the target apical or basolateral plasma membrane and associated cortical cytoskeleton. PDZ (Postsynaptic density protein 95/ Drosophila Disks large/Zona occludens-1) domain-containing proteins have been identified as playing a critical role in membrane trafficking and sorting of ion transporters, receptors and other signalling proteins. These scaffolding proteins coordinate the assembly of functional plasma membrane multiprotein complexes, through PDZ domain binding to a consensus amino acid motif within the carboxyl-terminus of target proteins. The organization of these proteins into submembranous complexes may facilitate downstream signalling. Although several epithelial PDZ proteins that bind to a number of important mammalian proteins have been isolated, in many cases the significance of these interactions is unclear. However, the epithelial PDZ domain-containing Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchanger regulatory factor tethers the Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchanger and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator Cl<sup>–</sup> channel within an apical plasma membrane signalling complex, and has been shown to regulate the activity of these proteins. This article reviews the current evidence that supports a central role for the PDZ protein in the regulation of polarized tubule cell functions, such as vectorial solute transport.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Identification of EBP50: A PDZ-containing Phosphoprotein that Associates with Members of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin Family

          Members of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of membrane–cytoskeletal linking proteins have NH2- and COOH-terminal domains that associate with the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton, respectively. To search for ERM binding partners potentially involved in membrane association, tissue lysates were subjected to affinity chromatography on the immobilized NH2-terminal domains of ezrin and moesin, which comprise the ezrin-radixin-moesin–association domain (N-ERMAD). A collection of polypeptides at 50–53 kD from human placenta and at 58-59 kD from bovine brain bound directly to both N-ERMADs. The 50–53-kD placental proteins migrated as a major 50-kD species after phosphatase treatment, indicating that the heterogeneity is due to different phosphorylation states. We refer to these polypeptides as ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50). Sequence analysis of human EBP50 was used to identify an ∼2-kb human cDNA that encodes a 357-residue polypeptide. Recombinant EBP50 binds tightly to the N-ERMADs of ezrin and moesin. Peptide sequences from the brain candidate indicated that it is closely related to EBP50. EBP50 has two PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1–like (PDZ) domains and is most likely a homologue of rabbit protein cofactor, which is involved in the protein kinase A regulation of the renal brush border Na+/H+ exchanger. EBP50 is widely distributed in tissues, and is particularly enriched in those containing polarized epithelia. Immunofluorescence microscopy of cultured cells and tissues revealed that EBP50 colocalizes with actin and ezrin in the apical microvilli of epithelial cells, and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that it is specifically associated with the microvilli of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. Moreover, EBP50 and ezrin can be coimmunoprecipitated as a complex from isolated human placental microvilli. These findings show that EBP50 is a physiologically relevant ezrin binding protein. Since PDZ domains are known to mediate associations with integral membrane proteins, one mode of membrane attachment of ezrin is likely to be mediated through EBP50.
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            A kinase-regulated PDZ-domain interaction controls endocytic sorting of the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

            A fundamental question in cell biology is how membrane proteins are sorted in the endocytic pathway. The sorting of internalized beta2-adrenergic receptors between recycling endosomes and lysosomes is responsible for opposite effects on signal transduction and is regulated by physiological stimuli. Here we describe a mechanism that controls this sorting operation, which is mediated by a family of conserved protein-interaction modules called PDZ domains. The phosphoprotein EBP50 (for ezrinradixin-moesin(ERM)-binding phosphoprotein-50) binds to the cytoplasmic tail of the beta2-adrenergic receptor through a PDZ domain and to the cortical actin cytoskeleton through an ERM-binding domain. Disrupting the interaction of EBP50 with either domain or depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton itself causes missorting of endocytosed beta2-adrenergic receptors but does not affect the recycling of transferrin receptors. A serine residue at position 411 in the tail of the beta2-adrenergic receptor is a substrate for phosphorylation by GRK-5 (for G-protein-coupled-receptor kinase-5) and is required for interaction with EBP50 and for proper recycling of the receptor. Our results identify a new role for PDZ-domain-mediated protein interactions and for the actin cytoskeleton in endocytic sorting, and suggest a mechanism by which GRK-mediated phosphorylation could regulate membrane trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors after endocytosis.
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              The beta2-adrenergic receptor interacts with the Na+/H+-exchanger regulatory factor to control Na+/H+ exchange.

              Stimulation of beta2-adrenergic receptors on the cell surface by adrenaline or noradrenaline leads to alterations in the metabolism, excitability, differentiation and growth of many cell types. These effects have traditionally been thought to be mediated exclusively by receptor activation of intracellular G proteins. However, certain physiological effects of beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulation, notably the regulation of cellular pH by modulation of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) function, do not seem to be entirely dependent on G-protein activation. We report here a direct agonist-promoted association of the beta2-adrenergic receptor with the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF), a protein that regulates the activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger type 3 (NHE3). NHERF binds to the beta2-adrenergic receptor by means of a PDZ-domain-mediated interaction with the last few residues of the carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the receptor. Mutation of the final residue of the beta2-adrenergic receptor from leucine to alanine abolishes the receptor's interaction with NHERF and also markedly alters beta2-adrenergic receptor regulation of NHE3 in cells without altering receptor-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase. Our findings indicate that agonist-dependent beta2-adrenergic receptor binding of NHERF plays a role in beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated regulation of Na+/H+ exchange.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2002
                2002
                09 October 2002
                : 10
                : 5-6
                : 307-312
                Affiliations
                Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
                Article
                65307 Exp Nephrol 2002;10:307–312
                10.1159/000065307
                12381914
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 40, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65307
                Categories
                Minireview

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                PDZ domain, Tubule cell, Epithelium, EBP50, NHE3

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