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      Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and aerobic exercise improve functioning, morphology, and redox balance in prostate obese rats

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          Abstract

          The high-fat diet (HFD) stimulates an increase in lipids and can be prejudicial for harmful to prostatic morphogenesis. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action in some types of cancer. The combination of aerobic physical exercise and PUFA can be more effective and reduce the risk of death. The study evaluates the effects of aerobic physical exercise associated with omega-3 (fish and chia oils), on the ventral prostate of Wistar rats those fed with HFD. Here, we report that HFD modified the final body weight and the weight gain, decreased the expression of the androgen receptor and increased prostatic inflammation via TNF-α produced damage prostatic like intraepithelial neoplasia. The supplementation with fish oil decreases final body weight, reduced BCL-2 and inflammation compared to chia oil; aerobic physical exercise associated with fish oil reduced lipids circulant and prostatic, increased proteins pro-apoptotic expression and reduced IL-6 (p < 0.0001) and TNF-α potentiating the CAT (p = 0.03) and SOD-1 (p = 0.001) expression. Additionally, the chia oil increased the NRF-2 (p < 0.0001) and GSS (p = 0.4) genes. PUFAs reduced the damage caused by excessive high-fat diet in the prostate so that there is greater effectiveness in omega-3 intake, it is necessary to associate with aerobic physical exercise.

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          Most cited references40

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          A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR.

          M. Pfaffl (2001)
          Use of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify cDNA products reverse transcribed from mRNA is on the way to becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study low abundance gene expression. Real-time PCR is easy to perform, provides the necessary accuracy and produces reliable as well as rapid quantification results. But accurate quantification of nucleic acids requires a reproducible methodology and an adequate mathematical model for data analysis. This study enters into the particular topics of the relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR of a target gene transcript in comparison to a reference gene transcript. Therefore, a new mathematical model is presented. The relative expression ratio is calculated only from the real-time PCR efficiencies and the crossing point deviation of an unknown sample versus a control. This model needs no calibration curve. Control levels were included in the model to standardise each reaction run with respect to RNA integrity, sample loading and inter-PCR variations. High accuracy and reproducibility (<2.5% variation) were reached in LightCycler PCR using the established mathematical model.
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            Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function.

            At high concentrations, free radicals and radical-derived, nonradical reactive species are hazardous for living organisms and damage all major cellular constituents. At moderate concentrations, however, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, and related reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Many of the ROS-mediated responses actually protect the cells against oxidative stress and reestablish "redox homeostasis." Higher organisms, however, have evolved the use of NO and ROS also as signaling molecules for other physiological functions. These include regulation of vascular tone, monitoring of oxygen tension in the control of ventilation and erythropoietin production, and signal transduction from membrane receptors in various physiological processes. NO and ROS are typically generated in these cases by tightly regulated enzymes such as NO synthase (NOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase isoforms, respectively. In a given signaling protein, oxidative attack induces either a loss of function, a gain of function, or a switch to a different function. Excessive amounts of ROS may arise either from excessive stimulation of NAD(P)H oxidases or from less well-regulated sources such as the mitochondrial electron-transport chain. In mitochondria, ROS are generated as undesirable side products of the oxidative energy metabolism. An excessive and/or sustained increase in ROS production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, obstructive sleep apnea, and other diseases. In addition, free radicals have been implicated in the mechanism of senescence. That the process of aging may result, at least in part, from radical-mediated oxidative damage was proposed more than 40 years ago by Harman (J Gerontol 11: 298-300, 1956). There is growing evidence that aging involves, in addition, progressive changes in free radical-mediated regulatory processes that result in altered gene expression.
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              Differential Effects of Aerobic Exercise, Resistance Training and Combined Exercise Modalities on Cholesterol and the Lipid Profile: Review, Synthesis and Recommendations

              There is a direct relationship between chronically elevated cholesterol levels (dyslipidaemia) and coronary heart disease. A reduction in total cholesterol is considered the gold standard in preventative cardiovascular medicine. Exercise has been shown to have positive impacts on the pathogenesis, symptomatology and physical fitness of individuals with dyslipidaemia, and to reduce cholesterol levels. The optimal mode, frequency, intensity and duration of exercise for improvement of cholesterol levels are, however, yet to be identified. This review assesses the evidence from 13 published investigations and two review articles that have addressed the effects of aerobic exercise, resistance training and combined aerobic and resistance training on cholesterol levels and the lipid profile. The data included in this review confirm the beneficial effects of regular activity on cholesterol levels and describe the impacts of differing volumes and intensities of exercise upon different types of cholesterol. Evidence-based exercise recommendations are presented, aimed at facilitating the prescription and delivery of interventions in order to optimize cholesterol levels.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                giovana.rampazzo@unesp.br
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                18 March 2021
                18 March 2021
                2021
                : 11
                : 6282
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.410543.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2188 478X, Postgraduate Program in Movement Sciences, , São Paulo State University (UNESP), ; Presidente Prudente, SP Brazil
                [2 ]GRID grid.410543.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2188 478X, Department of Physical Education, School of Technology and Sciences, , São Paulo State University (UNESP), ; 19060-900, Street Roberto Simonsen, Presidente Prudente, SP 305 Brazil
                [3 ]GRID grid.410543.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2188 478X, Department of Physiotherapy, , São Paulo State University (UNESP), ; Presidente Prudente, SP Brazil
                [4 ]GRID grid.412294.8, ISNI 0000 0000 9007 5698, Faculty of Nutrition, , University of Oeste Paulista (UNOESTE), ; Presidente Prudente, SP Brazil
                [5 ]GRID grid.410543.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2188 478X, Multicentre Graduate Program in Physiological Sciences, , São Paulo State University (UNESP), ; Araçatuba, SP Brazil
                [6 ]GRID grid.412294.8, ISNI 0000 0000 9007 5698, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, , Universidade Do Oeste Paulista (UNOESTE), ; Presidente Prudente, SP Brazil
                [7 ]GRID grid.412368.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0643 8839, Faculty of Medicine of ABC (FMABC), ; Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil
                [8 ]GRID grid.410543.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2188 478X, Experimental Laboratory of Exercise Biology (LEBioEx), , São Paulo State University (UNESP), ; Presidente Prudente, SP Brazil
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0044-2939
                Article
                85337
                10.1038/s41598-021-85337-9
                7973565
                33737530
                0b93c3c1-3508-4f55-8263-67316d93fe93
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 2 November 2020
                : 1 March 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil (CAPES)-Finance Code-001
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Uncategorized
                cell biology,molecular biology,oncology
                Uncategorized
                cell biology, molecular biology, oncology

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