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      Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Albumin, and Mortality Among Chinese Older Adults: A Population-based Longitudinal Study

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          The associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] and all-cause mortality have been inconsistent in existing literatures. One plausible reason is the interaction of intrinsic vitamin D with other biological conditions such as malnutrition and chronic inflammation.


          To explore the associations between serum levels of 25(OH)D, albumin, and all-cause mortality and further evaluate their interactions in elderly people.


          Population-based longitudinal study.

          Setting and Participants

          Data were obtained from 1834 people aged 65 to 112 who had their serum 25(OH)D and albumin assayed at baseline in 2011. Participants’ survival status was ascertained at the 2014 and 2018 follow-up survey waves.

          Main Outcome Measures

          All-cause mortality.


          Among the 1834 participants, both serum 25(OH)D and albumin concentrations were inversely associated with all-cause mortality (Ps < 0.001). In addition, the interaction effect of 25(OH)D and albumin on all-cause mortality was observed among the participants (P = 0.001). In the group with a higher albumin level (≥40 g/L), participants with a lower level of 25(OH)D (<50 nmol/L) had higher risk of mortality than their counterparts (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.56), and the association was more pronounced in women. In the group with a lower albumin level (<40 g/L), the associations failed to reach statistical significance in all participants as well as in women and in men.


          Serum 25(OH)D and albumin levels were inversely associated with all-cause mortality in Chinese older adults. The association between 25(OH)D and mortality was more pronounced in participants with higher albumin levels.

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          Most cited references30

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          Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

          The objective was to provide guidelines to clinicians for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency with an emphasis on the care of patients who are at risk for deficiency. The Task Force was composed of a Chair, six additional experts, and a methodologist. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during several conference calls and e-mail communications. The draft prepared by the Task Force was reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee, Clinical Affairs Core Committee, and cosponsoring associations, and it was posted on The Endocrine Society web site for member review. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is very common in all age groups and that few foods contain vitamin D, the Task Force recommended supplementation at suggested daily intake and tolerable upper limit levels, depending on age and clinical circumstances. The Task Force also suggested the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level by a reliable assay as the initial diagnostic test in patients at risk for deficiency. Treatment with either vitamin D(2) or vitamin D(3) was recommended for deficient patients. At the present time, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend screening individuals who are not at risk for deficiency or to prescribe vitamin D to attain the noncalcemic benefit for cardiovascular protection.
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            Vitamin D status and ill health: a systematic review.

            Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have been associated with many non-skeletal disorders. However, whether low 25(OH)D is the cause or result of ill health is not known. We did a systematic search of prospective and intervention studies that assessed the effect of 25(OH)D concentrations on non-skeletal health outcomes in individuals aged 18 years or older. We identified 290 prospective cohort studies (279 on disease occurrence or mortality, and 11 on cancer characteristics or survival), and 172 randomised trials of major health outcomes and of physiological parameters related to disease risk or inflammatory status. Investigators of most prospective studies reported moderate to strong inverse associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiovascular diseases, serum lipid concentrations, inflammation, glucose metabolism disorders, weight gain, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis, mood disorders, declining cognitive function, impaired physical functioning, and all-cause mortality. High 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with a lower risk of cancer, except colorectal cancer. Results from intervention studies did not show an effect of vitamin D supplementation on disease occurrence, including colorectal cancer. In 34 intervention studies including 2805 individuals with mean 25(OH)D concentration lower than 50 nmol/L at baseline supplementation with 50 μg per day or more did not show better results. Supplementation in elderly people (mainly women) with 20 μg vitamin D per day seemed to slightly reduce all-cause mortality. The discrepancy between observational and intervention studies suggests that low 25(OH)D is a marker of ill health. Inflammatory processes involved in disease occurrence and clinical course would reduce 25(OH)D, which would explain why low vitamin D status is reported in a wide range of disorders. In elderly people, restoration of vitamin D deficits due to ageing and lifestyle changes induced by ill health could explain why low-dose supplementation leads to slight gains in survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Is Open Access

              Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States

              Objective To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) and mortality in a large consortium of cohort studies paying particular attention to potential age, sex, season, and country differences. Design Meta-analysis of individual participant data of eight prospective cohort studies from Europe and the US. Setting General population. Participants 26 018 men and women aged 50-79 years Main outcome measures All-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. Results 25(OH)D concentrations varied strongly by season (higher in summer), country (higher in US and northern Europe) and sex (higher in men), but no consistent trend with age was observed. During follow-up, 6695 study participants died, among whom 2624 died of cardiovascular diseases and 2227 died of cancer. For each cohort and analysis, 25(OH)D quintiles were defined with cohort and subgroup specific cut-off values. Comparing bottom versus top quintiles resulted in a pooled risk ratio of 1.57 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.81) for all-cause mortality. Risk ratios for cardiovascular mortality were similar in magnitude to that for all-cause mortality in subjects both with and without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline. With respect to cancer mortality, an association was only observed among subjects with a history of cancer (risk ratio, 1.70 (1.00 to 2.88)). Analyses using all quintiles suggest curvilinear, inverse, dose-response curves for the aforementioned relationships. No strong age, sex, season, or country specific differences were detected. Heterogeneity was low in most meta-analyses. Conclusions Despite levels of 25(OH)D strongly varying with country, sex, and season, the association between 25(OH)D level and all-cause and cause-specific mortality was remarkably consistent. Results from a long term randomised controlled trial addressing longevity are being awaited before vitamin D supplementation can be recommended in most individuals with low 25(OH)D levels.

                Author and article information

                The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
                The Endocrine Society
                August 2020
                August 01 2020
                August 2020
                August 01 2020
                June 05 2020
                : 105
                : 8
                : 2762-2770
                [1 ]Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, Jiangsu, China
                [2 ]Department of Family Medicine, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Center for Healthy Aging and Development Studies, National School of Development and Raissun Institute for Advanced Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China
                [4 ]Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development and Geriatrics Division, Medical School of Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
                © 2020




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