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      Neuroprotective Effect of Dioscin on the Aging Brain

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      Molecules

      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Our previous works have shown that dioscin, a natural product, has various pharmacological activities, however, its role in brain aging has not been reported. In the present study, in vitro H2O2-treated PC12 cells and in vivo d-galactose-induced aging rat models were used to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dioscin on brain aging. The results showed that dioscin increased cell viability and protected PC12 cells against oxidative stress through decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. In vivo, dioscin markedly improved the spatial learning ability and memory of aging rats, reduced the protein carbonyl content and aging cell numbers, restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in brain tissue, and reversed the histopathological structure changes of nerve cells. Mechanism studies showed that dioscin markedly adjusted the MAPK and Nrf2/ARE signalling pathways to decrease oxidative stress. Additionally, dioscin also significantly decreased inflammation by inhibiting the mRNA or protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CYP2E1 and HMGB1. Taken together, these results indicate that dioscin showed neuroprotective effect against brain aging via decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation, which should be developed as an efficient candidate in clinical to treat brain aging in the future.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Gene regulation and DNA damage in the ageing human brain.

          The ageing of the human brain is a cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The time in life when brain ageing begins is undefined. Here we show that transcriptional profiling of the human frontal cortex from individuals ranging from 26 to 106 years of age defines a set of genes with reduced expression after age 40. These genes play central roles in synaptic plasticity, vesicular transport and mitochondrial function. This is followed by induction of stress response, antioxidant and DNA repair genes. DNA damage is markedly increased in the promoters of genes with reduced expression in the aged cortex. Moreover, these gene promoters are selectively damaged by oxidative stress in cultured human neurons, and show reduced base-excision DNA repair. Thus, DNA damage may reduce the expression of selectively vulnerable genes involved in learning, memory and neuronal survival, initiating a programme of brain ageing that starts early in adult life.
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            Neural mechanisms of ageing and cognitive decline.

            During the past century, treatments for the diseases of youth and middle age have helped raise life expectancy significantly. However, cognitive decline has emerged as one of the greatest health threats of old age, with nearly 50% of adults over the age of 85 afflicted with Alzheimer's disease. Developing therapeutic interventions for such conditions demands a greater understanding of the processes underlying normal and pathological brain ageing. Recent advances in the biology of ageing in model organisms, together with molecular and systems-level studies of the brain, are beginning to shed light on these mechanisms and their potential roles in cognitive decline.
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              Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

              Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of signal transduction mechanisms. Recent advances in the study of such cascades include the cloning of genes encoding novel members of the cascades, further definition of the roles of the cascades in responses to extracellular signals, and examination of cross-talk between different cascades.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MOLEFW
                Molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI AG
                1420-3049
                April 2019
                March 30 2019
                : 24
                : 7
                : 1247
                Article
                10.3390/molecules24071247
                0ba6e25e-7ff2-4e6a-baa0-05bd44f7e0f0
                © 2019
                Product

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