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      Intcal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP

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          Abstract

          A new calibration curve for the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages has been constructed and internationally ratified to replace IntCal98, which extended from 0–24 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950). The new calibration data set for terrestrial samples extends from 0–26 cal kyr BP, but with much higher resolution beyond 11.4 cal kyr BP than IntCal98. Dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples cover the period from 0–12.4 cal kyr BP. Beyond the end of the tree rings, data from marine records (corals and foraminifera) are converted to the atmospheric equivalent with a site-specific marine reservoir correction to provide terrestrial calibration from 12.4–26.0 cal kyr B P. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a coherent statistical approach based on a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the14C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are discussed here. The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed in brief, but details are presented in Hughen et al. (this issue a). We do not make a recommendation for calibration beyond 26 cal kyr BP at this time; however, potential calibration data sets are compared in another paper (van der Plicht et al., this issue).

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          Most cited references 6

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          Radiocarbon Age Calibration of Marine Samples Back to 9000 Cal Yr BP

          Calibration curves spanning several millennia are now available in this special issue ofRadiocarbon. These curves, nearly all derived from the14C age determinations of wood samples, are to be used for the age conversion of samples that were formed through use of atmospheric CO2. When samples are formed in reservoirs (eg, lakes and oceans) that differ in specific14C content from the atmosphere, an age adjustment is needed because a conventional14C age, although taking into account14C (and13C) fractionation, does not correct for the difference in specific14C activity (Stuiver & Polach, 1977). The14C ages of samples grown in these environments are too old, and a reservoir age correction has to be applied. This phenomenon has been referred to as the reservoir effect (Stuiver & Polach, 1977).
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            A high-precision calibration of the AD radiocarbon time scale

             Minze Stuiver (1982)
            A high-precision calibration curve, derived from the radiocarbon age determinations of 195 decade samples spanning the AD 1 to 1950 interval, is presented.
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              Calibration of the 14C time scale to >40 ka by 234U–230Th dating of Lake Lisan sediments (last glacial Dead Sea)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Radiocarbon
                Radiocarbon
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0033-8222
                1945-5755
                2004
                July 2016
                : 46
                : 03
                : 1029-1058
                10.1017/S0033822200032999
                © 2004

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