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      Life-management strategies of selection, optimization and compensation: Measurement by self-report and construct validity.

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      Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          The authors examined the usefulness of a self-report measure for elective selection, loss-based selection. optimization, and compensation (SOC) as strategies of life management. The expected 4-factor solution was obtained in 2 independent samples (N = 218, 14-87 years; N = 181, 18-89 years) exhibiting high retest stability across 4 weeks (r(tt) = .74-82). As expected, middle-aged adults showed higher endorsement of SOC than younger and older adults. Moreover, SOC showed meaningful convergent and divergent associations to other psychological constructs (e.g., thinking styles, NEO) and evinced positive correlations with measures of well-being which were maintained after other personality and motivational constructs were controlled for. Initial evidence on behavioral associations involving SOC obtained in other studies is summarized.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales

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            Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content.

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              On the incomplete architecture of human ontogeny. Selection, optimization, and compensation as foundation of developmental theory.

               P B Baltes (1997)
              Drawing on both evolutionary and ontogenetic perspectives, the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development is outlined. Three principles are involved. First, evolutionary selection pressure predicts a negative age correlation, and therefore, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever-increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity, the efficiency of culture is reduced as life span development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the life span architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Degree of completeness can be defined as the ratio between gains and losses in functioning. Two examples illustrate the implications of the life span architecture proposed. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of 3 component processes: selection, optimization, and compensation. The second considers the task of completing the life course in the sense of achieving a positive balance between gains and losses for all age levels. This goal is increasingly more difficult to attain as human development is extended into advanced old age.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
                Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1315
                0022-3514
                April 2002
                April 2002
                : 82
                : 4
                : 642-662
                Article
                11999929
                © 2002

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