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      Investigating the Mental Health Impacts of University Campus Green Space Through Perceived Sensory Dimensions and the Mediation Effects of Perceived Restorativeness on Restoration Experience


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          Introduction: Green spaces support people mentally in their everyday life. Perceived restorativeness and Perceived Sensory Dimension (PSD) have been addressed as optimal environmental related characteristics with regards to psychological restoration. However, relatively little research has investigated how the perception of these characteristics, directly and indirectly, affects restoration experience, particularly in a sample of university students within the area of green outdoor campus landscapes.

          Methods: This study hypothesizes these associations through application of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), inputting data from a sample of university students in Malaysia. In the hypothesized model, we examine the degree of restoration that is enjoyed by subjects within landscapes through the effects of these characteristics. Indirect effects of perceived restorativeness via evaluation of mediation effects associated with perception of landscape characteristics and restoration experience are also investigated.

          Results: Through validation of the measurement model, we find significant positive coefficient paths with adequate predictive abilities in the hypothesized model. Findings suggest the effect of PSD on perceived restorativeness leads to a better explanation of restoration experience. In addition, perceived landscape characteristics of PSD enhance restoration experience in alignment with perceived restorativeness characteristics.

          Conclusions: Greater effects on restoration experience come through perceived restorativeness that is affected by PSD, which itself is capable of promoting favorable experiences of restorativeness in a green space and facilitating psychological restorative outcomes. The mechanistic effect of emotional regulation implies a distinct role of green spaces in maintaining good mental health and has relevance to public health models that promote independence and well-being through preventative approaches. The work paves the way for further studies that examine which dimensions of PSD support perceived restorativeness and restoration experience more than others, and the wider psycho-social value of green spaces through the application of mediation effects and personal sensory dimensions in the development of mental health.

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          The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework

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            Exploring pathways linking greenspace to health: Theoretical and methodological guidance.

            In a rapidly urbanizing world, many people have little contact with natural environments, which may affect health and well-being. Existing reviews generally conclude that residential greenspace is beneficial to health. However, the processes generating these benefits and how they can be best promoted remain unclear.
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              A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research


                Author and article information

                Front Public Health
                Front Public Health
                Front. Public Health
                Frontiers in Public Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                22 December 2020
                : 8
                : 578241
                [1] 1Countryside and Community Research Institute, University of Gloucestershire , Cheltenham, United Kingdom
                [2] 2Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia , Johor Bahru, Malaysia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Wulf Rössler, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany

                Reviewed by: Joel Martínez-Soto, University of Guanajuato, Mexico; Ye Liu, Sun Yat-sen University, China

                *Correspondence: Paul Courtney pcourtney@ 123456glos.ac.uk

                This article was submitted to Public Mental Health, a section of the journal Frontiers in Public Health

                Copyright © 2020 Malekinezhad, Courtney, bin Lamit and Vigani.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 30 June 2020
                : 12 November 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 63, Pages: 14, Words: 11252
                Public Health
                Original Research

                restoration experience,mental health,perceived restorativeness,perceived sensory dimension (psd),pls-sem analysis


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