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      Skin-Derived Micro-Organs Induce Angiogenesis in Rabbits

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          Abstract

          We have recently reported an alternative cell therapy approach to induce angiogenesis. The approach is based on small organ fragments – micro-organs (MOs) – whose geometry allows preservation of the natural epithelial/mesenchymal interactions and ensures appropriate diffusion of nutrients and gases to all cells. We have shown that lung-derived MOs, when implanted into hosts, transcribe a wide spectrum array of angiogenic factors and can induce an angiogenic response that can rescue experimentally induced ischemic regions in mice.From a clinical perspective, skin-derived MOs are particularly appealing as they could readily be obtained from a skin biopsy taken from the same target patient. In the present work we have investigated the angiogenesis-inducing capacity of rabbit and human skin-derived micro-organs in vitro and in vivo. Rabbit skin MOs were implanted into homologous adult rabbits and human skin MOs were encapsulated and implanted into xenogenic mice. Skin-derived MOs, as lung-derived MOs, were found to secrete a whole array of angiogenic factors and to induce a powerful angiogenic response when implanted back into animals. We believe the approach presented suggests a novel, efficacious and simple approach for therapeutic angiogenesis.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Vascular-specific growth factors and blood vessel formation.

          A recent explosion in newly discovered vascular growth factors has coincided with exploitation of powerful new genetic approaches for studying vascular development. An emerging rule is that all of these factors must be used in perfect harmony to form functional vessels. These new findings also demand re-evaluation of therapeutic efforts aimed at regulating blood vessel growth in ischaemia, cancer and other pathological settings.
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            Polymeric system for dual growth factor delivery.

            The development of tissues and organs is typically driven by the action of a number of growth factors. However, efforts to regenerate tissues (e.g., bone, blood vessels) typically rely on the delivery of single factors, and this may partially explain the limited clinical utility of many current approaches. One constraint on delivering appropriate combinations of factors is a lack of delivery vehicles that allow for a localized and controlled delivery of more than a single factor. We report a new polymeric system that allows for the tissue-specific delivery of two or more growth factors, with controlled dose and rate of delivery. The utility of this system was investigated in the context of therapeutic angiogenesis. We now demonstrate that dual delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-165 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, each with distinct kinetics, from a single, structural polymer scaffold results in the rapid formation of a mature vascular network. This is the first report of a vehicle capable of delivery of multiple angiogenic factors with distinct kinetics, and these results clearly indicate the importance of multiple growth factor action in tissue regeneration and engineering.
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              Macrophage-induced angiogenesis is mediated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

              Macrophages are important in the induction of new blood vessel growth during wound repair, inflammation and tumour growth. We show here that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a secretory product of activated macrophages that is believed to mediate tumour cytotoxicity, is a potent inducer of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis). In vivo, TNF-alpha induces capillary blood vessel formation in the rat cornea and the developing chick chorioallantoic membrane at very low doses. In vitro, TNF-alpha stimulates chemotaxis of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells and induces cultures of these cells grown on type-1 collagen gels to form capillary-tube-like structures. The angiogenic activity produced by activated murine peritoneal macrophages is completely neutralized by a polyclonal antibody to TNF-alpha, suggesting immunological features are common to TNF-alpha and the protein responsible for macrophage-derived angiogenic activity. In inflammation and wound repair, TNF-alpha could augment repair by stimulating new blood vessel growth; in tumours, TNF-alpha might both stimulate tumour development by promoting vessel growth and participate in tumour destruction by direct cytotoxicity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2006
                February 2006
                16 February 2006
                : 43
                : 2
                : 139-148
                Affiliations
                aInstitute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and bEpigenesis Ltd., Beck Science Center, Jerusalem, Israel
                Article
                90943 J Vasc Res 2006;43:139–148
                10.1159/000090943
                16407659
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 28, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Paper

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