Objective To understand the inter-relationships among COVID-19 risk perception, physical exercise and mental health among college students, and to provide basis for effective mental health promotion of college students under the context of normal epidemic prevention and control.
Methods By using a longitudinal design, in December 2021 (T1) and March 2022 (T2), 2 follow-up surveys were conducted among 973 college students from 16 colleges and universities in Zhengzhou, Beijing, Shenyang and Tianjin, by using the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), Physical Exercise Rating Scale (PARS-3) and COVID-19 Epidemic Risk Perception Scale.
Results There was no significant difference in risk perception of COVID-19 between boys and girls ( Z = -1.81, -1.82, P>0.05), while there were cross-group gender differences in physical exercise and mental health variables (T1: Z = -0.98, -4.84; T2: Z = -0.86, -4.64, P<0.01), with boys were better than girls in physical exercise and mental health; There was a stable and synchronous correlation between the risk perception of COVID-19 epidemic, physical exercise and mental health of college students ( r = -0.31-0.54, P<0.01); Early risk perception of COVID-19 (T1) could predict later physical exercise and mental health (T2) of college students ( β = 0.30, 0.43, P<0.01), early physical exercise (T1) could predict later mental health (T2) ( β = 0.37, P<0.01), and physical exercise had a mediating effect on the association between COVID-19 risk perception and mental health.
Conclusion There is a longitudinal causal relationship between COVID-19 risk perception, physical exercise and mental health. It is of practical significance to improve college physical exercise awareness based on gender.
【摘要】目的 了解大学生新冠肺炎疫情风险感知、体育锻炼与心理健康的内在机制, 为有效缓解常态化疫情防控背景 下大学生心理健康问题提供理论依据。 方法 采用纵向设计, 使用心理症状自评量表 (SCL-90)、体育锻炼等级量表 (PARS-3)、新冠肺炎疫情风险感知量表分别于 2021 年 12 月 (T1)和 2022 年 3 月 (T2)方便抽取郑州、北京、沈阳、天津 4 个地区 16 所髙校的 973 名大学生进行 2 次追踪调査。 结果 2次调査, 男、女生在新冠肺炎疫情风险感知变量上差异无统 计学意义 (Z值分别为 -1.81, -1.82, P值均>0.05), 在体育锻炼和心理健康 2 个变量上存在跨群组的性别差异 (T1: Z值分 别为 -0.98, -4.84；T2：Z值分别为 -0.86, -4.64, P值均<0.01), 男生的体育锻炼和心理健康状况优于女生;大学生在新冠肺 炎疫情风险感知、体育锻炼与心理健康上存在稳定、同步相关性 ( r =-0.31~0.54, P值均<0.01);大学生新冠肺炎疫情风险 感知T1能够预测体育锻炼和心理健康T2 ( β值分别为 0.30, 0.43, P值均<0.01), 体育锻炼T1能够预测心理健康T2 ( β =0.37, P<0.01), 且在新冠肺炎疫情风险感知与心理健康的影响路径上, 体育锻炼具备中介作用。 结论 新冠肺炎疫情风险 感知、体育锻炼与心理健康存在纵向因果关系, 依据性别提髙大学体育锻炼意识对改善心理健康具有现实意义。