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      Bioremediation of wastewaters with recalcitrant organic compounds and metals by aerobic granules.

      1 , ,

      Biotechnology advances

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Compared to activated sludge flocs, aerobic granules have a regular shape, and a compact and dense structure which enhances settleability, higher biomass retention, multi-microbial functions, higher tolerance to toxicity, greater tolerance to shock loading, and relatively low excess sludge production. The potential for improved process efficiency and cost-effectiveness can be attractive when it is applied to both municipal and industrial wastewaters. This review discusses potential applications of aerobic granulation technology in wastewater treatment while drawing attention to relevant findings such as diffusion gradients existing in aerobic granules which help the biomass cope with inhibitory compounds and the ability of granules to continue degradation of inhibitory compounds at extreme acid and alkaline pHs.

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          Author and article information

          Affiliations
          [1 ] Division of Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore.
          Journal
          Biotechnol. Adv.
          Biotechnology advances
          Elsevier BV
          1873-1899
          0734-9750
          October 14 2010
          : 29
          : 1
          S0734-9750(10)00135-7
          10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.09.004
          20940035

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