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      Essential Oils and Isolated Terpenes in Nanosystems Designed for Topical Administration: A Review

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          Abstract

          Essential oils are natural products with a complex composition. Terpenes are the most common class of chemical compounds present in essential oils. Terpenes and the essential oils containing them are widely used and investigated by their pharmacological properties and permeation-enhancing ability. However, many terpenes and essential oils are sensitive to environmental conditions, undergoing volatilization and chemical degradation. In order to overcome the chemical instability of some isolated terpenes and essential oils, the encapsulation of these compounds in nanostructured systems (polymeric, lipidic, or molecular complexes) has been employed. In addition, nanoencapsulation can be of interest for pharmaceutical applications due to its capacity to improve the bioavailability and allow the controlled release of drugs. Topical drug administration is a convenient and non-invasive administration route for both local and systemic drug delivery. The present review focuses on describing the current status of research concerning nanostructured delivery systems containing isolated terpenes and/or essential oils designed for topical administration and on discussing the use of terpenes and essential oils either for their biological activities or as permeation enhancers in pharmaceutic formulations.

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          Most cited references 113

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          Stability of Essential Oils: A Review

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            Essential oils: from extraction to encapsulation.

            Essential oils are natural products which have many interesting applications. Extraction of essential oils from plants is performed by classical and innovative methods. Numerous encapsulation processes have been developed and reported in the literature in order to encapsulate biomolecules, active molecules, nanocrystals, oils and also essential oils for various applications such as in vitro diagnosis, therapy, cosmetic, textile, food etc. Essential oils encapsulation led to numerous new formulations with new applications. This insures the protection of the fragile oil and controlled release. The most commonly prepared carriers are polymer particles, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles.
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              Essential Oils Loaded in Nanosystems: A Developing Strategy for a Successful Therapeutic Approach

              Essential oils are complex blends of a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components, and aliphatic components having a strong interest in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural, and food industries. Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, and other medicinal properties such as analgesic, sedative, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, and locally anaesthetic remedies. In this review their nanoencapsulation in drug delivery systems has been proposed for their capability of decreasing volatility, improving the stability, water solubility, and efficacy of essential oil-based formulations, by maintenance of therapeutic efficacy. Two categories of nanocarriers can be proposed: polymeric nanoparticulate formulations, extensively studied with significant improvement of the essential oil antimicrobial activity, and lipid carriers, including liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid particles, and nano- and microemulsions. Furthermore, molecular complexes such as cyclodextrin inclusion complexes also represent a valid strategy to increase water solubility and stability and bioavailability and decrease volatility of essential oils.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                MDPI
                2218-273X
                05 April 2019
                April 2019
                : 9
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre 90610-000, Brazil; sheilaporto@ 123456outlook.com (S.P.d.M.); helder.teixeira@ 123456ufrgs.br (H.F.T.)
                [2 ]Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av. General Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, Petrópolis, Natal 59012-570, Brazil; adleyantonini@ 123456yahoo.com.br
                [3 ]Departamento de Engenharia Química, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praça Gen. Tibúrcio, 80, Praia Vermelha, Urca, Rio de Janeiro 22290-270, Brazil; valdir.veiga@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: leticia.koester@ 123456ufrgs.br ; Tel.: +55-51-3308-5278
                Article
                biomolecules-09-00138
                10.3390/biom9040138
                6523335
                30959802
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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