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      Impact of Mindfulness Training on Spanish Police Officers’ Mental and Emotional Health: a Non-Randomized Pilot Study


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          The purpose of this exploratory non-randomized controlled study was to determine the acceptance and effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) co-designed by a police officer.


          A pretest-posttest control group design was followed. Participants (MBI group = 20; control group = 18) answered baseline and post-training self-reported measures. In addition, the weekly emotional state of the MBI group was collected. Paired-samples t-test and analysis of covariance were performed for pre-post within-group and between-group differences, respectively, as well as linear mixed effects analysis of repeated measures for week-by-week data.


          High acceptance and attendance rates, as well as significant pre-post within-group differences in the MBI group in mindfulness ( η 2 = 0.43), self-compassion ( η 2 = 0.43), depression ( η 2 = 0.54), anxiety ( η 2 = 0.46), stress ( η 2 = 0.51), difficulties in emotion regulation, sleep quality ( η 2 = 0.57), and burnout ( η 2 = 0.31–0.47), were identified. Moreover, police officers who underwent the MBI experienced a week by week decrease of anger, disgust, anxiety, sadness, and desire. Finally, after adjusting for pre-test scores, significant between-group differences were found in the way of attending to internal and external experiences (observing mindfulness facet; η p 2 = 0.21), depression symptoms ( η p 2 = 0.23), general distress ( η p 2 = 0.24), and the degree of physical and psychological exhaustion (personal burnout; η p 2 = 0.20).


          The preliminary effectiveness of this MBI on psychopathology and quality of life outcomes in Spanish police officers was discussed. Previous evidence regarding the promising use of MBIs in this population was supported.

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          Most cited references74

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          Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.

          Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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            The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories

            The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were evaluated in a normal sample of N = 717 who were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The DASS was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, and the factor structure was substantiated both by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In comparison to the BDI and BAI, the DASS scales showed greater separation in factor loadings. The DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the BAI, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the BDI. Factor analyses suggested that the BDI differs from the DASS Depression scale primarily in that the BDI includes items such as weight loss, insomnia, somatic preoccupation and irritability, which fail to discriminate between depression and other affective states. The factor structure of the combined BDI and BAI items was virtually identical to that reported by Beck for a sample of diagnosed depressed and anxious patients, supporting the view that these clinical states are more severe expressions of the same states that may be discerned in normals. Implications of the results for the conceptualisation of depression, anxiety and tension/stress are considered, and the utility of the DASS scales in discriminating between these constructs is discussed.
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              Multidimensional Assessment of Emotion Regulation and Dysregulation: Development, Factor Structure, and Initial Validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale


                Author and article information

                Mindfulness (N Y)
                Mindfulness (N Y)
                Springer US (New York )
                14 January 2022
                14 January 2022
                : 1-17
                [1 ]GRID grid.5338.d, ISNI 0000 0001 2173 938X, Department of Personality, Evaluation, and Psychological Treatments, , University of Valencia, ; Avd. Blasco Ibañez 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain
                [2 ]Asociación H Policía, Madrid, Spain
                [3 ]GRID grid.512890.7, CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), ; Madrid, Spain
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 2 January 2022
                Funded by: Universitat de Valencia
                Original Paper

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                mindfulness-based intervention,police officers,psychopathology,quality of life,suicide ideation,linear mixed models


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