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      Pain reduction and improved vascular health associated with daily consumption of an anti-inflammatory dietary supplement blend

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          Abstract

          Purpose: The objective for this clinical pilot study was to evaluate changes to chronic pain, vascular health, and inflammatory markers when consuming a dietary supplement blend (DSB, CytoQuel ®), containing curcumin, resveratrol, tocotrienols, N-Acetylcysteine, and epigallocatechin gallate.

          Materials and methods: An open-label study design was used where 21 study participants were evaluated at baseline and at 2 and 8 weeks after consuming DSB. Participants were randomized to consume 3 capsules once daily versus 2 capsules twice daily. Pain and activities of daily living questionnaires were used to gather subjective data on pain levels and interference with daily living. Blood pressure was measured in both arms and ankles, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) calculated. Blood samples were used to evaluate markers associated with inflammation and cardiovascular health.

          Results: Highly significant reduction of chronic pain was seen after 8 weeks ( p<0.01), both at rest and when physically active. Faster improvement was seen when consuming 3 capsules once daily, compared to 2 capsules twice daily. The pain reduction resulted in improved sleep quality ( p<0.1), and improved social functioning ( p<0.01), and less need for support from others ( p<0.05), Normalization of mildly elevated ABI at study start was seen after 2 weeks. Plasma fibrinogen and von Willebrand Factor and serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) showed reduction after 2 weeks (not significant), whereas a reduction in serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist-a (IL-1ra) was statistically significant after 2 weeks ( p<0.05). Correlation between pain reduction and changes to MMP-9 after 8 weeks was highly significant ( P<0.01), whereas correlation between pain reduction and changes to IL-1ra reached significance at 2 weeks for the group consuming 3 caps once daily ( p<0.04).

          Conclusion: Consuming DSB helped manage pain, increased comfort during daily activities, and improved vascular function. This was associated with selective effects on specific blood biomarkers associated with inflammation and vascular health.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators.

           S Yusuf,  J Pogue,  P Bosch (2000)
          Observational and experimental studies suggest that the amount of vitamin E ingested in food and in supplements is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. We enrolled a total of 2545 women and 6996 men 55 years of age or older who were at high risk for cardiovascular events because they had cardiovascular disease or diabetes in addition to one other risk factor. These patients were randomly assigned according to a two-by-two factorial design to receive either 400 IU of vitamin E daily from natural sources or matching placebo and either an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ramipril) or matching placebo for a mean of 4.5 years (the results of the comparison of ramipril and placebo are reported in a companion article). The primary outcome was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes. The secondary outcomes included unstable angina, congestive heart failure, revascularization or amputation, death from any cause, complications of diabetes, and cancer. A total of 772 of the 4761 patients assigned to vitamin E (16.2 percent) and 739 of the 4780 assigned to placebo (15.5 percent) had a primary outcome event (relative risk, 1.05; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.16; P=0.33). There were no significant differences in the numbers of deaths from cardiovascular causes (342 of those assigned to vitamin E vs. 328 of those assigned to placebo; relative risk, 1.05; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.22), myocardial infarction (532 vs. 524; relative risk, 1.02; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.15), or stroke (209 vs. 180; relative risk, 1.17; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.42). There were also no significant differences in the incidence of secondary cardiovascular outcomes or in death from any cause. There were no significant adverse effects of vitamin E. In patients at high risk for cardiovascular events, treatment with vitamin E for a mean of 4.5 years had no apparent effect on cardiovascular outcomes.
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            Fibrinogen stimulates macrophage chemokine secretion through toll-like receptor 4.

            Extravascular fibrin deposition is an early and persistent hallmark of inflammatory responses. Fibrin is generated from plasma-derived fibrinogen, which escapes the vasculature in response to endothelial cell retraction at sites of inflammation. Our ongoing efforts to define the physiologic functions of extravasated fibrin(ogen) have led to the discovery, reported here, that fibrinogen stimulates macrophage chemokine secretion. Differential mRNA expression analysis and RNase protection assays revealed that macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, MIP-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 are fibrinogen inducible in the RAW264.7 mouse macrophage-like cell line, and ELISA confirmed that both RAW264.7 cells and primary murine thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages up-regulate the secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 >100-fold upon exposure to fibrinogen. Human U937 and THP-1 precursor-1 (THP-1) monocytic cell lines also secreted chemokines in response to fibrinogen, upon activation with IFN-gamma and differentiation with vitamin D(3), respectively. LPS contamination could not account for our observations, as fibrinogen-induced chemokine secretion was sensitive to heat denaturation and was unaffected by the pharmacologic LPS antagonist polymyxin B. Nevertheless, fibrinogen- and LPS-induced chemokine secretion both apparently required expression of functional Toll-like receptor 4, as each was diminished in macrophages derived from C3H/HeJ mice. Thus, innate responses to fibrinogen and bacterial endotoxin may converge at the evolutionarily conserved Toll-like recognition molecules. Our data suggest that extravascular fibrin(ogen) induces macrophage chemokine expression, thereby promoting immune surveillance at sites of inflammation.
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              Curcumin as a therapeutic agent: the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies.

              Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric. It is widely used as a kitchen spice and food colorant throughout India, Asia and the Western world. Curcumin is a major constituent of curry powder, to which it imparts its characteristic yellow colour. For over 4000 years, curcumin has been used in traditional Asian and African medicine to treat a wide variety of ailments. There is a strong current public interest in naturally occurring plant-based remedies and dietary factors related to health and disease. Curcumin is non-toxic to human subjects at high doses. It is a complex molecule with multiple biological targets and different cellular effects. Recently, its molecular mechanisms of action have been extensively investigated. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Under some circumstances its effects can be contradictory, with uncertain implications for human treatment. While more studies are warranted to further understand these contradictions, curcumin holds promise as a disease-modifying and chemopreventive agent. We review the evidence for the therapeutic potential of curcumin from in vitro studies, animal models and human clinical trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                15 May 2019
                2019
                : 12
                : 1497-1508
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Researched Nutritionals , Los Olivos, CA, USA
                [2 ]NIS Labs , Klamath Falls 1437, OR, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Gitte S JensenNIS Labs , Esplanade, Klamath Falls1437, Oregon, USATel +1 541 884 0112Email gitte@ 123456nislabs.com
                Article
                189064
                10.2147/JPR.S189064
                6526776
                © 2019 Hamilton and Jensen.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 65, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

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