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      Value of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy as a predictor of poor blood pressure control : Evidence from the China stroke primary prevention trial

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          Abstract

          Recent studies have shown that hypertension is poorly controlled in many populations worldwide. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy is a common manifestation of preclinical cardiovascular disease that strongly predicts cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. However, little information is available regarding the role of left ventricular hypertrophy in blood pressure (BP) control. We aimed to assess the relationship between electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and BP control in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The study population included 17,312 hypertensive patients who were selected from a group of 20,702 adults who had participated in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial and had undergone electrocardiography at baseline visit. Multivariate analysis identified left ventricular hypertrophy as a predictor of unsatisfactory BP control. The results revealed that 8.1% of hypertensive adults exhibit left ventricular hypertrophy and that the disease is more prevalent in males (12.8%) than in females. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy group had a significantly higher rate of unsatisfactory BP control [odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26–1.61, P < .001) than the nonleft ventricular hypertrophy group.

          Notable differences in BP control were also observed among males (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.17–1.60, P < .001) and females (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.18–1.77, P < .001) and especially among patients with comorbid diabetes (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.31–4.12, P = .004). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy appears to be an independent predictive factor for poor BP control, especially in females and patients with comorbid diabetes.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization.

          End-stage renal disease substantially increases the risks of death, cardiovascular disease, and use of specialized health care, but the effects of less severe kidney dysfunction on these outcomes are less well defined. We estimated the longitudinal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among 1,120,295 adults within a large, integrated system of health care delivery in whom serum creatinine had been measured between 1996 and 2000 and who had not undergone dialysis or kidney transplantation. We examined the multivariable association between the estimated GFR and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. The median follow-up was 2.84 years, the mean age was 52 years, and 55 percent of the group were women. After adjustment, the risk of death increased as the GFR decreased below 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area: the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 1.2 with an estimated GFR of 45 to 59 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.2), 1.8 with an estimated GFR of 30 to 44 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 1.9), 3.2 with an estimated GFR of 15 to 29 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.1 to 3.4), and 5.9 with an estimated GFR of less than 15 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.4 to 6.5). The adjusted hazard ratio for cardiovascular events also increased inversely with the estimated GFR: 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 1.5), 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 2.1), 2.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.6 to 2.9), and 3.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.1 to 3.8), respectively. The adjusted risk of hospitalization with a reduced estimated GFR followed a similar pattern. An independent, graded association was observed between a reduced estimated GFR and the risk of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization in a large, community-based population. These findings highlight the clinical and public health importance of chronic renal insufficiency. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8).

            Hypertension is the most common condition seen in primary care and leads to myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and death if not detected early and treated appropriately. Patients want to be assured that blood pressure (BP) treatment will reduce their disease burden, while clinicians want guidance on hypertension management using the best scientific evidence. This report takes a rigorous, evidence-based approach to recommend treatment thresholds, goals, and medications in the management of hypertension in adults. Evidence was drawn from randomized controlled trials, which represent the gold standard for determining efficacy and effectiveness. Evidence quality and recommendations were graded based on their effect on important outcomes. There is strong evidence to support treating hypertensive persons aged 60 years or older to a BP goal of less than 150/90 mm Hg and hypertensive persons 30 through 59 years of age to a diastolic goal of less than 90 mm Hg; however, there is insufficient evidence in hypertensive persons younger than 60 years for a systolic goal, or in those younger than 30 years for a diastolic goal, so the panel recommends a BP of less than 140/90 mm Hg for those groups based on expert opinion. The same thresholds and goals are recommended for hypertensive adults with diabetes or nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) as for the general hypertensive population younger than 60 years. There is moderate evidence to support initiating drug treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, or thiazide-type diuretic in the nonblack hypertensive population, including those with diabetes. In the black hypertensive population, including those with diabetes, a calcium channel blocker or thiazide-type diuretic is recommended as initial therapy. There is moderate evidence to support initial or add-on antihypertensive therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in persons with CKD to improve kidney outcomes. Although this guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for the management of high BP and should meet the clinical needs of most patients, these recommendations are not a substitute for clinical judgment, and decisions about care must carefully consider and incorporate the clinical characteristics and circumstances of each individual patient.
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              The ventricular complex in left ventricular hypertrophy as obtained by unipolar precordial and limb leads.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                November 2018
                02 November 2018
                : 97
                : 44
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang
                [b ]Department of Neurology, the Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi
                [c ]Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, XinHua Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai
                [d ]Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing
                [e ]National Clinical Research Study Center for Kidney Disease; State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research; Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Xiaoshu Cheng, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China (e-mail: xiaoshumenfan@ 123456126.com ); Yong Huo, Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China (e-mail: huoyong@ 123456263.net.cn ).
                Article
                MD-D-18-01752 12966
                10.1097/MD.0000000000012966
                6221643
                30383646
                Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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