+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The effectiveness of Tai Chi on the physical and psychological well-being of college students: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          The physical and mental health of college-age youths tends to continuously decline around the world. It is therefore important to promote health during this period. As a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) may be an available selection. However for the college student population, the evidence is unclear as to whether TCC can be recommended as an effective exercise for promoting their physical and psychological wellbeing. Therefore high quality, rigorous, prospective, and well-controlled randomized trials are needed to further understand TCC serving as a psychological and physical intervention in college age populations.


          We designed a randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled trial with a sample size of 206 participants. All the participants who meet the inclusion criteria come from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (FJTCM). Participants of the TCC training group will receive TCC training at a frequency of five days per week for one hour per day for 12 weeks. No specific exercise will be administered on the participants in the control group. Both physical and mental health outcomes, including balance ability, lower limb proprioception, flexibility, physical fitness, self-efficacy, psychological symptoms, attention span, stress, self-esteem, mood and mindfulness, quality of life, and quality of sleep. Safety outcomes will be evaluated by blinded operators at baseline, 12 and 24-weeks post-intervention.


          This protocol presents an objective design of a randomized, single-blind trial that will test the effectiveness and safety of TCC on the physical and psychological wellbeing of college students. If the outcome is positive, the results will provide higher quality evidence of TCC on the physical and mental health of college age populations.

          Trial registration

          Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003328.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 23

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes in patients with chronic conditions: a systematic review.

          To conduct a systematic review of reports on the physical and psychological effects of Tai Chi on various chronic medical conditions. Search of 11 computerized English and Chinese databases. Randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled studies, and observational studies published in English or Chinese. Data were extracted for the study objective, population characteristics, study setting, type of Tai Chi intervention, study design, outcome assessment, duration of follow-up, and key results. There were 9 randomized controlled trials, 23 nonrandomized controlled studies, and 15 observational studies in this review. Benefits were reported in balance and strength, cardiovascular and respiratory function, flexibility, immune system, symptoms of arthritis, muscular strength, and psychological effects. Tai Chi appears to have physiological and psychosocial benefits and also appears to be safe and effective in promoting balance control, flexibility, and cardiovascular fitness in older patients with chronic conditions. However, limitations or biases exist in most studies, and it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about the benefits reported. Most indications in which Tai Chi was applied lack a theoretical foundation concerning the mechanism of benefit. Well-designed studies are needed.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Spring 2008 Reference Group Data Report (abridged): the American College Health Association.

            Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey that ACHA developed in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The ACHA-NCHA contains approximately 300 questions assessing student health status and health problems, risk and protective behaviors, and impediments to academic performance. The spring 2008 reference group includes ACHA-NCHA data from 80,121 students at 106 institutions of higher education. Officials at participating institutions administered the ACHA-NCHA to all students, randomly selected students, or students in randomly selected classrooms. ACHA collected data between January and May 2008. Results from the spring 2008 reference group (N=80,121) are presented. These data expand the understanding of the health needs and capacities of college students.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The impact of weight change on cardiovascular disease risk factors in young black and white adults: the CARDIA study.

               Cara Lewis,  ,  J. Norman (2003)
              To quantify the relation between weight change and change in blood pressure, lipids and insulin levels, and determine if this relation differs by race or initial level of obesity. Longitudinal cohort study. Community-based sample of 3325 black and white men and women aged 18-30 y from four centers followed for 10 y. Women pregnant at baseline or 10th year exam and persons without a recorded weight at both exams were excluded. Participants whose baseline BMI was >or=25 kg/m(2) were classified as overweight. Height, weight, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting triglycerides, fasting insulin, and blood pressure were measured at baseline and Year 10. The mean (s.d.) of weight gained over 10 y was 10.5 (10.0) kg (black men), 11.7 (11.0) (black women), 7.7 (8.0) (white men), and 7.2 (10.0) (white women). An increase in weight was associated with adverse changes in all factors in all race-sex groups. For example, a 9.1 kg (20-lb) weight increase in persons not overweight at baseline predicted an increase in LDL-C ranging from 0.23 mmol/l in black women to 0.28 mmol/l in black men and a decrease in HDL-C from 0.09 mmol/l (white women) to 0.11 mmol/l (white men) (all P<0.0001). The estimated change in triglycerides was greater in white than in black participants (P<0.02); no other racial differences were found. Changes in triglycerides (P<0.00001) and fasting insulin (P=0.004) were greater in men than in women. Only for LDL-C was a weight change-associated increase significantly different (greater, P<0.001) for nonoverweight persons than for those overweight at baseline. None of these associations were highly specific. Mean levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, and systolic blood pressure improved among all those who lost or did not gain weight. A 10 y weight gain in young adults of both races and sexes tends to confer adverse changes in their levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, fasting insulin, and blood pressure. This effect occurs regardless of initial weight, age, race, or gender.

                Author and article information

                BioMed Central
                17 April 2014
                : 15
                : 129
                [1 ]Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, HuaTuo Road, Fuzhou 350122, China
                [2 ]Rehabilitation Medicine College, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, HuaTuo Road, Fuzhou 350122, China
                [3 ]Department of Physical Education, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, HuaTuo Road, Fuzhou 350122, China
                [4 ]Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, HuaTuo Road, Fuzhou 350122, China
                Copyright © 2014 Zheng et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Study Protocol


                tai chi chuan, college students, psychological well-being, physical health


                Comment on this article