Helen Post , 1 , 8 , Endre Németh 2 , László Klima 3 , Rodrigo Flores 1 , Tibor Fehér 2 , Attila Türk 4 , Gábor Székely 2 , Hovhannes Sahakyan 1 , 5 , Mayukh Mondal 1 , Francesco Montinaro 1 , Monika Karmin 1 , Lauri Saag 1 , Bayazit Yunusbayev 1 , 6 , Elza K. Khusnutdinova 6 , 7 , Ene Metspalu 1 , Richard Villems 1 , 8 , Kristiina Tambets 1 , Siiri Rootsi 1
24 May 2019
Hungarians who live in Central Europe today are one of the westernmost Uralic speakers. Despite of the proposed Volga-Ural/West Siberian roots of the Hungarian language, the present-day Hungarian gene pool is highly similar to that of the surrounding Indo-European speaking populations. However, a limited portion of specific Y-chromosomal lineages from haplogroup N, sometimes associated with the spread of Uralic languages, link modern Hungarians with populations living close to the Ural Mountain range on the border of Europe and Asia. Here we investigate the paternal genetic connection between these spatially separated populations. We reconstruct the phylogeny of N3a4-Z1936 clade by using 33 high-coverage Y-chromosomal sequences and estimate the coalescent times of its sub-clades. We genotype close to 5000 samples from 46 Eurasian populations to show the presence of N3a4-B539 lineages among Hungarians and in the populations from Ural Mountain region, including Ob-Ugric-speakers from West Siberia who are geographically distant but linguistically closest to Hungarians. This sub-clade splits from its sister-branch N3a4-B535, frequent today among Northeast European Uralic speakers, 4000–5000 ya, which is in the time-frame of the proposed divergence of Ugric languages.