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      Chorologie des Tabanidae (Diptera) dans la réserve de biosphère Ipassa-Makokou (Gabon) en saison des pluies Translated title: Abundance and species diversity of tabanids (Diptera) in the biosphere reserve Ipassa-Makokou (Gabon) during the rainy season

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          L’abondance et la diversité spécifique des tabanidés ont été évaluées par des captures d’insectes à l’aide de pièges Vavoua durant la saison des pluies, du 4 octobre au 30 novembre 2009, dans trois types de biotope : forêt primaire, forêt secondaire et villages, dans la réserve de biosphère Ipassa-IRET Makokou au Gabon. Huit espèces de tabanidés appartenant à trois genres ont été identifiées sur un total de 402 spécimens capturés. Les espèces de tabanidés numériquement les plus abondantes ont été : Tabanus secedens Walker, 1854 (55,2 %), Tabanus obscurehirtus Ricardo, 1908 (13,9 %), Chrysops dimidiatus Wulp, 1885 (11,2 %) et Chrysops silaceus Austen, 1907 (10,7 %). Les espèces les moins abondantes ont été Tabanus par Walker, 1854 (3,2 %), Tabanus besti arbucklei Austen, 1912 (3 %), Tabanus marmorosus congoicola Bequaert, 1930 (1 %) et Ancala fasciata fasciata (Fabricius, 1775) (0,5 %). Des spécimens des genres Tabanus et Chrysops n’ont pu être déterminés, représentant respectivement des taux de 0,7 % et 0,5 % des insectes capturés. La plus forte proportion de tabanidés a été capturée en forêt secondaire (75,1 %) et la plus faible en forêt primaire (4,5 %).

          Translated abstract

          The abundance and species diversity of tabanids were evaluated by trapping of insects using Vavoua traps, during the rainy season, from October 4 to November 30, 2009, in three different habitats: primary forest, secondary forest and village, in the biosphere reserve Ipassa-IRET Makokou in Gabon. Eight species belonging to three genera of tabanids have been identified for a total of 402 specimens caught. The tabanid species numerically the most abundant were: Tabanus secedens Walker, 1854 (55.2%), Tabanus obscurehirtus Ricardo, 1908 (13.9%), Chrysops dimidiatus Wulp, 1885 (11.2%) and Chrysops silaceus Austen, 1907 (10,7%). The less abundant species were Tabanus par Walker, 1854 (3.2%), Tabanus besti arbucklei Austen, 1912 (3%), Tabanus marmorosus congoicola Bequaert, 1930 (1%) and Ancala fasciata fasciata (Fabricius, 1775) (0.5%). Specimens of the genera Tabanus and Chrysops could not be identified, these insects represented respectively 0.7% and 0.5% of the insects trapped. The highest proportion of tabanids was trapped in secondary forest (75.1%) and the lower in primary forest (4.5%).

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          Most cited references 5

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          Tabanids as vectors of disease agents.

           L Foil (1989)
          The Tabanidae are considered to be among the major Dipteran pests of man and animals worldwide, but this group is undoubtedly the least studied. There have been at least 137 genera and 4154 species of tabanids described to date. Yet, existing, active research programmes number, at most, 50 in systematics and distribution, 15 in economic entomology, and five in disease transmission. To redress the balance, Lane Foil discusses the entire spectrum of research on the transmission of infections by tabanids, both from the point of view of general factors affecting transmission dynamics, as well as the specific examination of candidate agents, from viruses to filaria.
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            The development of a multipurpose trap (the Nzi) for tsetse and other biting flies.

             S Mihok (2002)
            New trap designs for tsetse (Glossinidae), stable flies (Muscidae: Stomoxyinae), and horse flies (Tabanidae) were tested in Kenya to develop a multipurpose trap for biting flies. Many configurations and colour/fabric combinations were compared to a simplified, blue-black triangular trap to identify features of design and materials that result in equitable catches. New designs were tested against conventional traps, with a focus on Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. longipennis Corti, Stomoxys niger Macquart, and Atylotus agrestis (Wiedemann). A simple design based on minimal blue and black rectangular panels, for attraction and contrast, with a trap body consisting of an innovative configuration of netting, proved best. This 'Nzi' trap (Swahili for fly) caught as many or significantly more tsetse and biting flies than any conventional trap. The Nzi trap represents a major improvement for Stomoxyinae, including the cosmopolitan species S. calcitrans (Linnaeus), with up to eight times the catch for key African Stomoxys spp. relative to the best trap for this group (the Vavoua). Catches of many genera of Tabanidae, including species almost never caught in traps (Philoliche Wiedemann), are excellent, and are similar to those of larger traps designed for this purpose (the Canopy). Improvements in capturing biting flies were achieved without compromising efficiency for the savannah tsetse species G. pallidipes. Catches of fusca tsetse (G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis Newstead) were higher or were the same as catches in good traps for these species (NG2G, Siamese). Altogether, the objective of developing a simple, economical trap with harmonized efficiency was achieved.
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              [Ecology of Stomoxys flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon. I. First survey in different ecological areas].

              The stomoxyine flies are hematophagous diptera and potential vectors of various pathogenic agents. Like those of the Afrotropical Region, the stomoxyine flies of Gabon remain nearly unknown. For these reasons, an entomological survey was conducted in a transverse way in eight localities representative of the various ecological zones of Gabon. The survey was based on the use of Vavoua traps. Various environmental factors able to influence the captures were noticed and included into a canonical correspondence analysis. In total, 15,966 Stomoxys spp., belonging to seven species or subspecies, were captured. The apparent densities (DAP) expressed as the number of flies per trap and per day, were highest in Franceville (41), Bakoumba (40), Makokou (25) and Mouila (21). The most abundant species were S. n niger (33.4%), S. transvittatus (33%), then S. calcitrans (17%). The principal factors that could explain the variability of the captures were the degree of anthropisation, the botanical facies (savanna or forest), the presence of wild and domestic fauna and the nature of the vegetal cover of the ground. S. calcitrans, S. niger niger were abundant in the areas where human presence was manifest. S. xanthomelas was present in forest belts. S. transvittatus, S. omega, S. inornatus were ubiquitous species. S. niger bilineatus was found in savannas areas.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                May 2012
                15 May 2012
                : 19
                : 2 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/02 )
                : 165-171
                [1 ] Institut de Recherches en Écologie Tropicale (IRET) BP 13354 Libreville Gabon
                [2 ] Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku (USTM) BP941 Franceville Gabon
                [3 ] Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques BP 5005 Dakar-Fann Sénégal
                [4 ] Université d’Abidjan, Cocody, UFR Biosciences 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22 Côte d’Ivoire
                [5 ] Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), UMR Intertryp 34398 Montpellier France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondance : Geneviève Acapovi-Yao. Tél. : 225 02 00 17 89. E-mail : acapovi_yao@ 123456yahoo.fr
                parasite2012192p165 10.1051/parasite/2012192165
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 27, Pages: 7
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