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      The ‘mitochondrial contact site and cristae organising system’ (MICOS) in health and human disease

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      The Journal of Biochemistry

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          The ‘mitochondrial contact site and cristae organising system’ (MICOS) is an essential protein complex that promotes the formation, maintenance and stability of mitochondrial cristae. As such, loss of core MICOS components disrupts cristae structure and impairs mitochondrial function. Aberrant mitochondrial cristae morphology and diminished mitochondrial function is a pathological hallmark observed across many human diseases such as neurodegenerative conditions, obesity and diabetes mellitus, cardiomyopathy, and in muscular dystrophies and myopathies. While mitochondrial abnormalities are often an associated secondary effect to the pathological disease process, a direct role for the MICOS in health and human disease is emerging. This review describes the role of MICOS in the maintenance of mitochondrial architecture and summarizes both the direct and associated roles of the MICOS in human disease.

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          Most cited references 148

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          Parkinson disease

          Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability. The underlying molecular pathogenesis involves multiple pathways and mechanisms: α-synuclein proteostasis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, axonal transport and neuroinflammation. Recent research into diagnostic biomarkers has taken advantage of neuroimaging in which several modalities, including PET, single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and novel MRI techniques, have been shown to aid early and differential diagnosis. Treatment of Parkinson disease is anchored on pharmacological substitution of striatal dopamine, in addition to non-dopaminergic approaches to address both motor and non-motor symptoms and deep brain stimulation for those developing intractable L-DOPA-related motor complications. Experimental therapies have tried to restore striatal dopamine by gene-based and cell-based approaches, and most recently, aggregation and cellular transport of α-synuclein have become therapeutic targets. One of the greatest current challenges is to identify markers for prodromal disease stages, which would allow novel disease-modifying therapies to be started earlier.
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            Mitochondrial Cristae: Where Beauty Meets Functionality.

            Mitochondrial cristae are dynamic bioenergetic compartments whose shape changes under different physiological conditions. Recent discoveries have unveiled the relation between cristae shape and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) function, suggesting that membrane morphology modulates the organization and function of the OXPHOS system, with a direct impact on cellular metabolism. As a corollary, cristae-shaping proteins have emerged as potential modulators of mitochondrial bioenergetics, a concept confirmed by genetic experiments in mouse models of respiratory chain deficiency. Here, we review our knowledge of mitochondrial ultrastructural organization and how it impacts mitochondrial metabolism.
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              Dimer ribbons of ATP synthase shape the inner mitochondrial membrane.

              ATP synthase converts the electrochemical potential at the inner mitochondrial membrane into chemical energy, producing the ATP that powers the cell. Using electron cryo-tomography we show that the ATP synthase of mammalian mitochondria is arranged in long approximately 1-microm rows of dimeric supercomplexes, located at the apex of cristae membranes. The dimer ribbons enforce a strong local curvature on the membrane with a 17-nm outer radius. Calculations of the electrostatic field strength indicate a significant increase in charge density, and thus in the local pH gradient of approximately 0.5 units in regions of high membrane curvature. We conclude that the mitochondrial cristae act as proton traps, and that the proton sink of the ATP synthase at the apex of the compartment favours effective ATP synthesis under proton-limited conditions. We propose that the mitochondrial ATP synthase organises itself into dimer ribbons to optimise its own performance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Biochemistry
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0021-924X
                1756-2651
                March 2020
                March 01 2020
                December 11 2019
                March 2020
                March 01 2020
                December 11 2019
                : 167
                : 3
                : 243-255
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, 23 Innovation Walk, Monash University, 3800 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
                Article
                10.1093/jb/mvz111
                © 2019

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