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      EUK-134 Reduces Renal Dysfunction and Injury Caused by Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress of the Kidney

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Oxidative and nitrosative stress plays important roles in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we investigate the effect of EUK-134, a synthetic superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic, (i) on renal dysfunction and injury caused by I/R in vivo and (ii) on proximal tubular cell (PTC) injury and death caused by oxidative and nitrosative stress. Methods: Rats, subjected to bilateral renal ischemia (45 min) followed by reperfusion (6 h), were administered EUK-134 (0.3 and 3 mg/kg, i.v.) prior to and during reperfusion, after which biochemical and histological indicators of renal dysfunction and injury were measured. The expression of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine formation were determined immunohistochemically and used as indicators of oxidative and nitrosative stress. Primary cultures of rat PTCs, isolated and cultured from the kidney cortex, were incubated with hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>; 1 m M for 2 h) in the presence of increasing concentrations of EUK-134 (1–100 µ M) after which PTC injury and death were measured. The effects of EUK-134 on serum levels of NO in rats subjected to renal I/R or on NO production by PTCs incubated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ, 100 IU/ml) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 µg/ml) in combination for 24 h were also measured. Results: EUK-134 produced a significant reduction in renal dysfunction and injury caused by I/R. Specifically, serum creatinine levels, an indicator of renal dysfunction, were reduced from 227 ± 11 (n = 12, I/R only) to 146 ± 9 µ M (n = 12, I/R +3 mg/kg EUK-134). Urinary N-acetyl-β- D-glucosaminidase activity, an indicator of tubular damage, was reduced from 42 ± 5 (n = 12, I/R only) to 22 ± 3 IU/l (n = 12, I/R +3 mg/kg EUK-134). EUK-134 significantly reduced renal injury caused by oxidative stress in vivo (reduction in PAR formation), and in vitro EUK-134 reduced PTC injury and death caused by H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. However, EUK-134 also reduced nitrosative stress caused by I/R in vivo (reduction of iNOS expression and nitrotyrosine formation), which was reflected by a significant reduction in serum NO levels in rats subjected to renal I/R. Specifically, serum NO levels were reduced from 57 ± 12 (n = 12, I/R only) to 23 ± 3 m M (n = 12, I/R +3 mg/kg EUK-134). In vitro, EUK-134 significantly reduced NO production by PTCs incubated with IFN-γ/LPS. Conclusion: We propose that EUK-134 reduces renal I/R injury not only via reduction of oxidative stress, but also by reducing nitrosative stress caused by renal I/R.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Oxidative damage and tyrosine nitration from peroxynitrite.

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            Nitric oxide in acute renal failure: NOS versus NOS.

            This overview provides information on the pathophysiology of the inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (iNOS/NO) system in the injury to cultured renal tubular epithelia, freshly isolated proximal tubules, and the whole organ after hypoxic or ischemic insult. The findings emphasize the role of concomitant oxidative and nitrosative stress and the role of peroxynitrite in the ensuing renal dysfunction. Scavenging peroxynitrite using seleno-organic compounds like ebselen provides renoprotection against ischemic injury. These sequelae of renal ischemia are a result of endothelial dysfunction, which is most probably responsible for the "no-reflow" phenomenon and further aggravation of tubular ischemia during the early reperfusion period. Recent studies have demonstrated that transplantation of functional endothelial cells into ischemic kidney provided a dramatic renoprotective effect. In conclusion, the intricate relations between endothelial and epithelial cells, based in part on the relations between endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases, are perturbed in renal ischemia primarily as a result of endothelial dysfunction precipitating epithelial injury.
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              Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase reduces renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

              Nitric oxide (NO), produced via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), is implicated in the pathophysiology of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the iNOS inhibitors L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL) and aminoethyl-isothiourea (AE-ITU) on (a) renal dysfunction and injury mediated by bilateral I/R of rat kidneys in vivo and (b) cytokine-stimulated NO production by primary cultures of rat proximal tubule (PT) cells. Male Wistar rats subjected to bilateral renal ischemia (45 min) followed by reperfusion (6 h). Rats were administered either L-NIL (3 mg/kg IV bolus 15 min prior to I/R followed by 1 mg/kg/h throughout I/R) or AE-ITU (1 mg/kg IV bolus 15 min prior to I/R followed by 1 mg/kg/h throughout I/R). Serum and urinary biochemical indicators of renal dysfunction and injury were measured; serum creatinine (SCr, glomerular dysfunction), fractional excretion of Na+ (FENa, tubular dysfunction), serum aspartate aminotransferase (sAST, I/R injury) and urinary N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (uNAG, tubular injury). Additionally, renal sections were used for histological grading of renal injury and for immunological evidence of nitrotyrosine formation. Nitrate/nitrate levels in plasma were measured using the Griess assay and used as an indicator of NO production. Primary cultures of rat PT cells were incubated with interferon-gamma(IFN-gamma, 100 IU/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 microg/mL) for 24 h, either in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of L-NIL or AE-ITU (0.001 to 1 mmol/L) after which nitrite/nitrate levels were measured using the Griess assay. L-NIL and AE-ITU significantly reduced the I/R-mediated increases in SCr, FENa, sAST and uNAG, indicating attenuation of I/R-mediated renal dysfunction and injury. Specifically, L-NIL and AE-ITU reduced the I/R-mediated glomerular and tubular dysfunction and biochemical and histological evidence of tubular injury. Both L-NIL and AE-ITU attenuated the plasma levels of nitrate (indicating reduced NO production) and the immunohistochemical evidence of the formation of nitrotyrosine. In vitro, L-NIL and AE-ITU both significantly reduced cytokine-stimulated NO production by primary cultures of rat PT cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that L-NIL and AE-ITU reduce the renal dysfunction and injury associated with I/R of the kidney, via inhibition of iNOS activity and subsequent reduction of NO (and peroxynitrite) generation. We propose that selective and specific inhibitors of iNOS activity may be useful against the NO-mediated renal dysfunction and injury associated with I/R of the kidney.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2004
                April 2004
                08 April 2004
                : 24
                : 2
                : 165-177
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Experimental Medicine, Nephrology and Critical Care, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, bDepartments of Pathology and cMedicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; dLaboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; eDepartment of Neurochemistry, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK, and fDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
                Article
                76547 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:165–177
                10.1159/000076547
                14752229
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 50, Pages: 13
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/76547
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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