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      Community Mobilization for Slum Upgrading through Sanitation in Roma Informal Settlements in the Paris Region

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          Abstract

          Background

          Community-based processes addressing environment, housing, and health issues may decrease health inequities by addressing social, economic, and political health determinants more effectively. Yet little analysis of their effectiveness has been undertaken and their potential transfer to marginalized groups in rich country settings. In Europe, stark health inequalities are seen among the Roma, Europe’s most impoverished community who often reside in informal settlements suffering from illiteracy, inadequate housing, and lack of water and sanitation. This paper assesses a dry sanitation project in a Roma informal settlement in the Paris region to improve their living conditions.

          Methods

          Between 2014 and 2017, multiple stakeholders were involved in a participatory process of design, construction, and maintenance of toilets. Interviews, mapping, model construction, and facilitated discussion were used to identify design features and follow-up indicators. Field notes, videos, questionnaires, and observation provided data for monitoring and evaluation. For questionnaires delivered to women in the community, a cross section time series was conducted to due to migration.

          Results

          Despite issues related to maintenance, the overall quality of life of women improved after toilet construction. This included indicators for comfort, cleanliness, practicality, privacy, security, and menstrual hygiene management. Furthermore, fewer women restrained themselves from relieving themselves or from drinking less water to avoid urinating. Odors continued to be an issue. Self-reporting of illnesses, such as diarrhea and urinary tract infections, were not reliable due to the vague description of these illnesses and the potential recall bias. Appropriate sanitation in informal settlements is a necessity as shown by feedback from Roma women and the literature. However, a more sustainable toilet project would have required an adequate budget, good quality materials, accountability, and buy in from all inhabitants as well as good relationships between the chief and all stakeholders in the settlement. Furthermore, provision should have been made for vulnerable and less autonomous inhabitants to ensure proper follow-up and maintenance.

          Conclusion/recommendations

          Safe water and sanitation is essential to decrease health inequities. Formative research, identifying natural leaders, sanitation committee formation, outcome indicator and baseline questionnaire development, appropriate messages and toilet design and placement, long-term follow-up, and political support are elements for effective interventions with the Roma. Potential attrition and reporting bias should be considered in monitoring and evaluation.

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          Most cited references 14

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          The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings

          Background Promotion and provision of low-cost technologies that enable improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are seen as viable solutions for reducing high rates of morbidity and mortality due to enteric illnesses in low-income countries. A number of theoretical models, explanatory frameworks, and decision-making models have emerged which attempt to guide behaviour change interventions related to WASH. The design and evaluation of such interventions would benefit from a synthesis of this body of theory informing WASH behaviour change and maintenance. Methods We completed a systematic review of existing models and frameworks through a search of related articles available in PubMed and in the grey literature. Information on the organization of behavioural determinants was extracted from the references that fulfilled the selection criteria and synthesized. Results from this synthesis were combined with other relevant literature, and from feedback through concurrent formative and pilot research conducted in the context of two cluster-randomized trials on the efficacy of WASH behaviour change interventions to inform the development of a framework to guide the development and evaluation of WASH interventions: the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IBM-WASH). Results We identified 15 WASH-specific theoretical models, behaviour change frameworks, or programmatic models, of which 9 addressed our review questions. Existing models under-represented the potential role of technology in influencing behavioural outcomes, focused on individual-level behavioural determinants, and had largely ignored the role of the physical and natural environment. IBM-WASH attempts to correct this by acknowledging three dimensions (Contextual Factors, Psychosocial Factors, and Technology Factors) that operate on five-levels (structural, community, household, individual, and habitual). Conclusions A number of WASH-specific models and frameworks exist, yet with some limitations. The IBM-WASH model aims to provide both a conceptual and practical tool for improving our understanding and evaluation of the multi-level multi-dimensional factors that influence water, sanitation, and hygiene practices in infrastructure-constrained settings. We outline future applications of our proposed model as well as future research priorities needed to advance our understanding of the sustained adoption of water, sanitation, and hygiene technologies and practices.
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            Hygiene: new hopes, new horizons

            Summary Although promotion of safe hygiene is the single most cost-effective means of preventing infectious disease, investment in hygiene is low both in the health and in the water and sanitation sectors. Evidence shows the benefit of improved hygiene, especially for improved handwashing and safe stool disposal. A growing understanding of what drives hygiene behaviour and creative partnerships are providing fresh approaches to change behaviour. However, some important gaps in our knowledge exist. For example, almost no trials of the effectiveness of interventions to improve food hygiene in developing countries are available. We also need to figure out how best to make safe hygiene practices matters of daily routine that are sustained by social norms on a mass scale. Full and active involvement of the health sector in getting safe hygiene to all homes, schools, and institutions will bring major gains to public health.
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              Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso.

              To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/426029
                Journal
                Front Public Health
                Front Public Health
                Front. Public Health
                Frontiers in Public Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2565
                21 August 2017
                2017
                : 5
                Affiliations
                1American University of Paris , Paris, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Alesia Coralie Ferguson, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, United States

                Reviewed by: Beth Maina Ahlberg, Uppsala University, Sweden; Charles D. Treser, University of Washington School of Public Health, United States; Qaisar Mahmood, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan

                *Correspondence: Ipsita Nita Chaudhuri, nchaudhuri62@ 123456gmail.com

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Environmental Health, a section of the journal Frontiers in Public Health

                Article
                10.3389/fpubh.2017.00213
                5566561
                Copyright © 2017 Chaudhuri.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 22, Pages: 10, Words: 7465
                Categories
                Public Health
                Original Research

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