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      Caregiver Well-Being : Intersections of Relationship and Gender

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          Abstract

          We know much about caregiving women compared with caregiving men and caregiving spouses compared with caregiving adult children. We know less about the intersections of relationship and gender. This article explores this intersection through the well-being (burden and self-esteem) of caregivers to family members with dementia. Throughout British Columbia, Canada, 873 caregivers were interviewed in person for on average, over 1½ hours. The results reveal that daughters experience the highest burden but also the highest self-esteem, suggesting the role is less salient for their self-identities. Wives emerge as the most vulnerable of the four groups when both burden and self-esteem are considered. The data confirm the usefulness of the intersectionality framework for understanding co-occupancy of more than one status and indicate that positive cognitive well-being and negative affective well-being can be differentially related. Multivariate analyses confirm the importance of caregiver, not patient, characteristics for burden and self-esteem.

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          Most cited references24

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          The Zarit Burden Interview: a new short version and screening version.

          The purpose of the study was to develop a short and a screening version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) that would be suitable across diagnostic groups of cognitively impaired older adults, and that could be used for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies. We used data from 413 caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults referred to a memory clinic. We collected information on caregiver burden with the 22-item ZBI, and information about dependence in activities of daily living (ADLs) and the frequency of problem behaviors among care recipients. We used factor analysis and item-total correlations to reduce the number of items while taking into consideration diagnosis and change scores. We produced a 12-item version (short) and a 4-item version (screening) of the ZBI. Correlations between the short and the full version ranged from 0.92 to 0.97, and from 0.83 to 0.93 for the screening version. Correlations between the three versions and ADL and problem behaviors were similar. We further investigated the behavior of the short version with a two-way analysis of variance and found that it produced identical results to the full version. The short and screening versions of the ZBI produced results comparable to those of the full version. Reducing the number of items did not affect the properties of the ZBI, and it may lead to easier administration of the instrument.
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            Income, health, and well-being around the world: evidence from the Gallup World Poll.

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              Caregiving and the stress process: an overview of concepts and their measures.

              This paper views caregiver stress as a consequence of a process comprising a number of interrelated conditions, including the socioeconomic characteristics and resources of caregivers and the primary and secondary stressors to which they are exposed. Primary stressors are hardships and problems anchored directly in caregiving. Secondary stressors fall into two categories: the strains experienced in roles and activities outside of caregiving, and intrapsychic strains, involving the diminishment of self-concepts. Coping and social support can potentially intervene at multiple points along the stress process.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Res Aging
                Res Aging
                ROA
                sproa
                Research on Aging
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                0164-0275
                1552-7573
                August 2015
                August 2015
                : 37
                : 6
                : 623-645
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
                Author notes
                [*]Neena L. Chappell, University of Victoria, Centre on Aging, R-Hut 140D, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8W 2Y2. Email: nlc@ 123456uvic.ca
                Article
                10.1177_0164027514549258
                10.1177/0164027514549258
                4510280
                25651586
                0c2d2937-aba8-4fed-a967-6d81a00c2c09
                © The Author(s) 2014

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page ( http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/openaccess.htm).

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                intersectionality,caregiving,gender,spouse vs. adult child,burden,self-esteem

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