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      Association between clinical risk factors and severity of dysphagia after extubation based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study

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          This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between clinical risk factors of post-extubation dysphagia (PED) and the severity of impaired pharyngeal swallowing function assessed via videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSSs).


          This study was a retrospective review of medical records. Of 116 patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit and underwent VFSS, 32 who had non-neurologic disorders and experienced prolonged intubation (for more than 48 hours) were diagnosed with PED. The severity of PED was evaluated by using a functional dysphagia scale (FDS) and a penetration aspiration scale (PAS), on the basis of VFSS.


          The Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and total FDS score were positively correlated ( r = 0.40, p = 0.02). Intubation duration was positively correlated with total PAS and FDS scores ( r = 0.62, p < 0.001; r = 0.65, p < 0.001, respectively). The amounts of residue in the valleculae (RV) and pyriform sinuses (RP) were associated with intubation duration ( r = 0.58, p < 0.001; r = 0.57, p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that intubation duration was significantly associated with the total FDS score, RV and RP subscales of the FDS, and total PAS score.


          The severity of impaired swallowing function, particularly the amount of residue in the pharyngeal recesses assessed via VFSS, was strongly associated with both severity of medical illness and intubation duration. Intubation duration could be a prognostic factor for assessing impaired swallowing function on the basis of VFSS.

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          SAPS 3—From evaluation of the patient to evaluation of the intensive care unit. Part 2: Development of a prognostic model for hospital mortality at ICU admission

          Objective To develop a model to assess severity of illness and predict vital status at hospital discharge based on ICU admission data. Design Prospective multicentre, multinational cohort study. Patients and setting A total of 16,784 patients consecutively admitted to 303 intensive care units from 14 October to 15 December 2002. Measurements and results ICU admission data (recorded within ±1 h) were used, describing: prior chronic conditions and diseases; circumstances related to and physiologic derangement at ICU admission. Selection of variables for inclusion into the model used different complementary strategies. For cross-validation, the model-building procedure was run five times, using randomly selected four fifths of the sample as a development- and the remaining fifth as validation-set. Logistic regression methods were then used to reduce complexity of the model. Final estimates of regression coefficients were determined by use of multilevel logistic regression. Variables selection and weighting were further checked by bootstraping (at patient level and at ICU level). Twenty variables were selected for the final model, which exhibited good discrimination (aROC curve 0.848), without major differences across patient typologies. Calibration was also satisfactory (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test Ĥ=10.56, p=0.39, Ĉ=14.29, p=0.16). Customised equations for major areas of the world were computed and demonstrate a good overall goodness-of-fit. Conclusions The SAPS 3 admission score is able to predict vital status at hospital discharge with use of data recorded at ICU admission. Furthermore, SAPS 3 conceptually dissociates evaluation of the individual patient from evaluation of the ICU and thus allows them to be assessed at their respective reference levels. Electronic Supplementary Material Electronic supplementary material is included in the online fulltext version of this article and accessible for authorised users:
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            A penetration-aspiration scale.

            The development and use of an 8-point, equal-appearing interval scale to describe penetration and aspiration events are described. Scores are determined primarily by the depth to which material passes in the airway and by whether or not material entering the airway is expelled. Intra- and interjudge reliability have been established. Clinical and scientific uses of the scale are discussed.
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              Paresis acquired in the intensive care unit: a prospective multicenter study.

              Although electrophysiologic and histologic neuromuscular abnormalities are common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, the clinical incidence of ICU-acquired neuromuscular disorders in patients recovering from severe illness remains unknown. To assess the clinical incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of ICU-acquired paresis (ICUAP) during recovery from critical illness in the ICU and to determine the electrophysiologic and histologic patterns in patients with ICUAP. Prospective cohort study conducted from March 1999 to June 2000. Three medical and 2 surgical ICUs in 4 hospitals in France. All consecutive ICU patients without preexisting neuromuscular disease who underwent mechanical ventilation for 7 or more days were screened daily for awakening. The first day a patient was considered awake was day 1. Patients with severe muscle weakness on day 7 were considered to have ICUAP. Incidence and duration of ICUAP, risk factors for ICUAP, and comparative duration of mechanical ventilation between ICUAP and control patients. Among the 95 patients who achieved satisfactory awakening, the incidence of ICUAP was 25.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9%-35.2%). All ICUAP patients had a sensorimotor axonopathy, and all patients who underwent a muscle biopsy had specific muscle involvement not related to nerve involvement. The median duration of ICUAP after day 1 was 21 days. Mean (SD) duration of mechanical ventilation after day 1 was significantly longer in patients with ICUAP compared with those without (18.2 [36.3] vs 7.6 [19.2] days; P =.03). Independent predictors of ICUAP were female sex (odds ratio [OR], 4.66; 95% CI, 1.19-18.30), the number of days with dysfunction of 2 or more organs (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.11-1.49), duration of mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.22), and administration of corticosteroids (OR, 14.90; 95% CI, 3.20-69.80) before day 1. Identified using simple bedside clinical criteria, ICUAP was frequent during recovery from critical illness and was associated with a prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation. Our findings suggest an important role of corticosteroids in the development of ICUAP.

                Author and article information

                Korean J Intern Med
                Korean J. Intern. Med
                The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
                The Korean Association of Internal Medicine
                January 2020
                2 January 2020
                : 35
                : 1
                : 79-87
                [1 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Tae-Du Jung, M.D. Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, 807 Hoguk-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41404, Korea Tel: +82-53-200-2167 Fax: +82-53-200-2033 E-mail: teed0522@
                Copyright © 2020 The Korean Association of Internal Medicine

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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