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A novel missense mutation in the factor XII gene in a litter of cats with factor XII deficiency

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      Abstract

      The feline F12 gene was examined to identify a mutation associated with coagulation factor XII (FXII) deficiency in a litter of 6 cats, including 2 cats with severely reduced FXII activity (7.1 and 9.3%, respectively) and 4 cats with moderately reduced FXII activity (range 36.0 to 46.3%). Cats with severely reduced FXII activity were homozygous for a G to C missense mutation in exon 13 of the F12 gene, resulting in an amino acid change (p.G544A). Cats with moderately reduced FXII activity were heterozygous for this mutation. Expression studies revealed reduced secretion of p.G544A mutant FXII protein from transfected HEK293 cells compared with wild type FXII. These results reveal a novel F12 mutation in FXII deficient cats and define the underlying mechanism for low FXII activity in homozygotes.

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      Platelet polyphosphates are proinflammatory and procoagulant mediators in vivo.

      Platelets play a central role in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. We show that activated platelets release inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of 60-100 phosphate residues that directly bound to and activated the plasma protease factor XII. PolyP-driven factor XII activation triggered release of the inflammatory mediator bradykinin by plasma kallikrein-mediated kininogen processing. PolyP increased vascular permeability and induced fluid extravasation in skin microvessels of mice. Mice deficient in factor XII or bradykinin receptors were resistant to polyP-induced leakage. PolyP initiated clotting of plasma via the contact pathway. Ablation of intrinsic coagulation pathway proteases factor XII and factor XI protected mice from polyP-triggered lethal pulmonary embolism. Targeting polyP with phosphatases interfered with procoagulant activity of activated platelets and blocked platelet-induced thrombosis in mice. Addition of polyP restored defective plasma clotting of Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome patients, who lack platelet polyP. The data identify polyP as a new class of mediator having fundamental roles in platelet-driven proinflammatory and procoagulant disorders.
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        Defective thrombus formation in mice lacking coagulation factor XII

        Blood coagulation is thought to be initiated by plasma protease factor VIIa in complex with the membrane protein tissue factor. In contrast, coagulation factor XII (FXII)–mediated fibrin formation is not believed to play an important role for coagulation in vivo. We used FXII-deficient mice to study the contributions of FXII to thrombus formation in vivo. Intravital fluorescence microscopy and blood flow measurements in three distinct arterial beds revealed a severe defect in the formation and stabilization of platelet-rich occlusive thrombi. Although FXII-deficient mice do not experience spontaneous or excessive injury-related bleeding, they are protected against collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism. Infusion of human FXII into FXII-null mice restored injury-induced thrombus formation. These unexpected findings change the long-standing concept that the FXII-induced intrinsic coagulation pathway is not important for clotting in vivo. The results establish FXII as essential for thrombus formation, and identify FXII as a novel target for antithrombotic therapy.
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          In vivo roles of factor XII.

          Coagulation factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor, EC = 3.4.21.38) is the zymogen of the serine protease, factor XIIa (FXIIa). FXII is converted to FXIIa through autoactivation induced by "contact" to charged surfaces. FXIIa is of crucial importance for fibrin formation in vitro, but deficiency in the protease is not associated with excessive bleeding. For decades, FXII was considered to have no function for coagulation in vivo. Our laboratory developed the first murine knockout model of FXII. Consistent with their human counterparts, FXII(-/-) mice have a normal hemostatic capacity. However, thrombus formation in FXII(-/-) mice is largely defective, and the animals are protected from experimental cerebral ischemia and pulmonary embolism. This murine model has created new interest in FXII because it raises the possibility for safe anticoagulation, which targets thrombosis without influence on hemostasis. We recently have identified platelet polyphosphate (an inorganic polymer) and mast cell heparin as in vivo FXII activators with implications on the initiation of thrombosis and edema during hypersensitivity reactions. Independent of its protease activity, FXII exerts mitogenic activity with implications for angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to summarize the in vivo functions of FXII, with special focus to its functions in thrombosis and vascular biology.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1) ]Laboratory of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880, Japan
            [2) ]Nagamatsu Animal Hospital, 2-3-10 Nishiku Sakaisunayama, Niigata 950-2044, Japan
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence to: Maruyama, H., Laboratory of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880, Japan. e-mail: maruyama.haruhiko@ 123456nihon-u.ac.jp
            Journal
            J Vet Med Sci
            J. Vet. Med. Sci
            JVMS
            The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
            The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science
            0916-7250
            1347-7439
            07 April 2017
            May 2017
            : 79
            : 5
            : 822-826
            28392508 5447966 16-0602 10.1292/jvms.16-0602
            ©2017 The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License. (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

            Categories
            Internal Medicine
            Note

            mutation, cat, factor xii

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