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      Vitamin D Analogs Modulate the Expression of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, Thrombospondin-1 and Thrombomodulin in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

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          Background/Aims: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and thrombomodulin (TM) are involved in atherothrombosis. Vitamin D receptor agonists (VDRAs) provide survival/cardiovascular benefits for chronic kidney disease patients. Methods: The effects of VDRAs on regulating PAI-1, THBS1 and TM in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC) were studied. Results: In SMC, paricalcitol and calcitriol downregulated the expression of PAI-1 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner (EC<sub>50</sub> = 0.7 and 4.4 n M, respectively). Both drugs also downregulated THBS1 mRNA and protein (EC<sub>50</sub> = 1.6 and 3.9 n M, respectively). In contrast, paricalcitol and calcitriol upregulated TM mRNA and protein (EC<sub>50</sub> = 28.9 and 25.5 n M, respectively). EC did not express VDR, and VDRAs failed to induce CYP24A1, a VDR target gene. The effect of paricalcitol on THBS1 in SMC was blocked by cycloheximide, while its effect on TM and CYP24A1 was not affected, suggesting that the regulation of THBS1 by VDR may be mediated through intermediate factors, but that TM is likely a direct target of VDR. Conclusion: VDR may play a role in atherothrombosis via regulation of PAI-1, THBS1 and TM.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a pooled analysis of community-based studies.

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem. Conflicting evidence exists among community-based studies as to whether CKD is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. After subjects with a baseline history of cardiovascular disease were excluded, data from four publicly available, community-based longitudinal studies were pooled: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study, and Framingham Offspring Study. Serum creatinine levels were indirectly calibrated across studies. CKD was defined by a GFR between 15 and 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). A composite of myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, and death was the primary study outcome. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for study, demographic variables, educational status, and other cardiovascular risk factors. The total population included 22,634 subjects; 18.4% of the population was black, and 7.4% had CKD. There were 3262 events. In adjusted analyses, CKD was an independent risk factor for the composite study outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.32), and there was a significant interaction between kidney function and race. Black individuals with CKD had an adjusted HR of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.35-2.31), whereas whites had an adjusted HR of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.02-1.26). CKD is a risk factor for the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in the general population and a more pronounced risk factor in blacks than in whites. It is hypothesized that this effect may be due to more frequent or more severe subclinical vascular disease secondary to hypertension or diabetes in black individuals.
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            Survival of patients undergoing hemodialysis with paricalcitol or calcitriol therapy.

            Elevated calcium and phosphorus levels after therapy with injectable vitamin D for secondary hyperparathyroidism may accelerate vascular disease and hasten death in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Paricalcitol, a new vitamin D analogue, appears to lessen the elevations in serum calcium and phosphorus levels, as compared with calcitriol, the standard form of injectable vitamin D. We conducted a historical cohort study to compare the 36-month survival rate among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis who started to receive treatment with paricalcitol (29,021 patients) or calcitriol (38,378 patients) between 1999 and 2001. Crude and adjusted survival rates were calculated and stratified analyses were performed. A subgroup of 16,483 patients who switched regimens was also evaluated. The mortality rate among patients receiving paricalcitol was 3417 per 19,031 person-years (0.180 per person-year), as compared with 6805 per 30,471 person-years (0.223 per person-year) among those receiving calcitriol (P<0.001). The difference in survival was significant at 12 months and increased with time (P<0.001). In the adjusted analysis, the mortality rate was 16 percent lower (95 percent confidence interval, 10 to 21 percent) among paricalcitol-treated patients than among calcitriol-treated patients. A significant survival benefit was evident in 28 of 42 strata examined, and in no stratum was calcitriol favored. At 12 months, calcium and phosphorus levels had increased by 6.7 and 11.9 percent, respectively, in the paricalcitol group, as compared with 8.2 and 13.9 percent, respectively, in the calcitriol group (P<0.001). The two-year survival rate among patients who switched from calcitriol to paricalcitol was 73 percent, as compared with 64 percent among those who switched from paricalcitol to calcitriol (P=0.04). Patients who receive paricalcitol while undergoing long-term hemodialysis appear to have a significant survival advantage over those who receive calcitriol. A prospective, randomized study is critical to confirm these findings. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Activated injectable vitamin D and hemodialysis survival: a historical cohort study.

              Patients with ESRD commonly experience secondary hyperparathyroidism, a condition primarily managed with activated injectable vitamin D. The biologic effects of vitamin D, however, are widespread, and it is possible that activated injectable vitamin D alters survival in ESRD. This hypothesis was tested in a historical cohort study of incident hemodialysis patients who lived throughout the United States between January 1996 and December 1999. The primary outcome was 2-yr survival among those who survived for at least 90 d after initiation of chronic hemodialysis. During this period, 51,037 chronic hemodialysis patients survived for at least 90 d from the initiation of hemodialysis, and in the ensuing 2 yr, 37,173 received activated injectable vitamin D and 13,864 did not. At 2 yr, mortality rates were 13.8/100 person-years in the group that received injectable vitamin D compared with 28.6/100 person-years in the group that did not (P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusting for several potential confounders and examining injectable vitamin D therapy as a time-dependent exposure suggested that compared with patients who did not receive injectable vitamin D, the 2-yr survival advantage associated with the group that did receive injectable vitamin D was 20% (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.76 to 0.83). The incidence of cardiovascular-related mortality was 7.6/100 person-years in the injectable vitamin D group, compared with 14.6/100 person-years in the non-vitamin D group (P < 0.001). The benefit of injectable vitamin D was evident in 48 of 49 strata examined, including those with low serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone and elevated levels of serum calcium and phosphorus, situations in which injectable vitamin D is often withheld. Repeating the entire analysis using marginal structural models to adjust for time-dependent confounding by indication yielded a survival advantage of 26% (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.79) associated with the injectable vitamin D group. In this historical cohort study, chronic hemodialysis patients in the group that received injectable vitamin D had a significant survival advantage over patients who did not. Randomized clinical trials would permit definitive conclusions.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                January 2007
                07 December 2006
                : 44
                : 1
                : 11-18
                Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill., USA
                97812 J Vasc Res 2007;44:11–18
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 37, Pages: 8
                Research Paper


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