Petalonema alatum (Borzì ex Bornet & Flahault) Correns is a nitrogen fixing, subaerial cyanobacterium characterized by a blue-green trichome surrounded by a very broad, lamellated mucous sheath. It typically grows on dripping limestone rocks in temperate regions, but it has also been observed in some calcareous lakes and limestone springs. Although the species is known to be present in the Americas, Europe and Asia, no records could be found for its presence in Africa. In the last decade, it was sampled twice from rock surfaces in cave overhangs in the Free State Province of South Africa, representing a first record of its presence in Africa. A taxonomic description, microscope images as well as detailed geographical distributions of P. alatum are provided.