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      Homologous series by Nikolai Vavilov in the phylogeny of Homoptera

      , 1

      Comparative Cytogenetics

      Pensoft Publishers

      Aphids, cicadas, homologous variability, parallel evolution, psyllids, scale insects, whiteflies

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          Abstract

          The paper briefly discusses the most impressive examples of the Nikolai Vavilov’s “Law of homologous series” in the evolution of one of the largest animal groups, homopterous insects, which comprise about 65,000 recent species in the world fauna. Different taxonomic and phylogenetic characters (morpho-anatomical, cytogenetic, reproductive and others) are considered at the taxonomic ranks of the order, suborder, superfamily and family.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Chromosome numbers in the Aphididae and their taxonomic significance

           R Blackman (1980)
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            General trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca (Insecta, Homoptera, Aphidinea + Coccinea)

            Abstract Parallel trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca are discussed, based on the catalogue of chromosomal numbers and genetic systems of scale insects by Gavrilov (2007) and the new catalogue for aphids provided in the present paper. To date chromosome numbers have been reported for 482 species of scale insects and for 1039 species of aphids, thus respectively comprising about 6% and 24% of the total number of species. Such characters as low modal numbers of chromosomes, heterochromatinization of part of chromosomes, production of only two sperm instead of four from each primary spermatocyte, physiological sex determination, "larval" meiosis, wide distribution of parthenogenesis and chromosomal races are considered as a result of homologous parallel changes of the initial genotype of Aphidococca ancestors. From a cytogenetic point of view, these characters separate Aphidococca from all other groups of Paraneoptera insects and in this sense can be considered as additional taxonomic characters. In contrast to available paleontological data the authors doubt that Coccinea with their very diverse (and partly primitive) genetic systems may have originated later then Aphidinea with their very specialised and unified genetic system.
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              Paternal Genome Elimination in Liposcelis Booklice (Insecta: Psocodea).

               Christina Hodson (corresponding) ,  Phineas T Hamilton,  Dave Dilworth (2017)
              How sex is determined in insects is diverse and dynamic, and includes male heterogamety, female heterogamety, and haplodiploidy. In many insect lineages, sex determination is either completely unknown or poorly studied. We studied sex determination in Psocodea-a species-rich order of insects that includes parasitic lice, barklice, and booklice. We focus on a recently discovered species of Liposcelis booklice (Psocodea: Troctomorpha), which are among the closest free-living relatives of parasitic lice. Using genetic, genomic, and immunohistochemical approaches, we show that this group exhibits paternal genome elimination (PGE), an unusual mode of sex determination that involves genomic imprinting. Controlled crosses, following a genetic marker over multiple generations, demonstrated that males only transmit to offspring genes they inherited from their mother. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed densely packed chromocenters associated with H3K9me3-a conserved marker for heterochromatin-in males, but not in females, suggesting silencing of chromosomes in males. Genome assembly and comparison of read coverage in male and female libraries showed no evidence for differentiated sex chromosomes. We also found that females produce more sons early in life, consistent with facultative sex allocation. It is likely that PGE is widespread in Psocodea, including human lice. This order represents a promising model for studying this enigmatic mode of sex determination.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                8
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:A71ED5FC-60ED-5DA3-AC8E-F6D2BB5B3573
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C8FA3ADA-5585-4F26-9215-A520EE683979
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                1993-0771
                1993-078X
                2020
                17 December 2020
                : 14
                : 4
                : 589-596
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya nab. 1, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences St. Petersburg Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin ( coccids@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: N. Bulatova

                Article
                60894
                10.3897/CompCytogen.v14i4.60894
                7759555
                Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Short Communication
                Animalia
                Evolutionary Biology
                Genetics
                Reproductive Biology
                Systematics
                Cenozoic
                World

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