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      The immunology of the vermiform appendix: a review of the literature

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          Summary

          This literature review assesses the current knowledge about the immunological aspects of the vermiform appendix in health and disease. An essential part of its immunological function is the interaction with the intestinal bacteria, a trait shown to be preserved during its evolution. The existence of the appendiceal biofilm in particular has proved to have a beneficial effect for the entire gut. In assessing the influence of acute appendicitis and the importance of a normally functioning gut flora, however, multiple immunological aspects point towards the appendix as a priming site for ulcerative colitis. Describing the immunological and microbiotical changes in the appendix during acute and chronic inflammation of the appendix, this review suggests that this association becomes increasingly plausible. Sustained by the distinct composition of cells, molecules and microbiota, as well as by the ever more likely negative correlation between the appendix and ulcerative colitis, the idea of the appendix being a vestigial organ should therefore be discarded.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Clin Exp Immunol
          Clin. Exp. Immunol
          10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2249
          CEI
          Clinical and Experimental Immunology
          John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
          0009-9104
          1365-2249
          19 July 2016
          October 2016
          : 186
          : 1 ( doiID: 10.1111/cei.2016.186.issue-1 )
          : 1-9
          Affiliations
          [ 1 ] Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research Academic Medical Center Amsterdam the Netherlands
          [ 2 ] Department of Surgery Academic Medical Center Amsterdam the Netherlands
          [ 3 ] Department of Pathology Academic Medical Center Amsterdam the Netherlands
          Author notes
          [* ]Correspondence: A. A. te Velde, Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 69–71, S Building, 1105 BK Amsterdam, NH, the Netherlands. E‐mail: a.a.tevelde@ 123456amc.nl
          Article
          PMC5011360 PMC5011360 5011360 CEI12821
          10.1111/cei.12821
          5011360
          27271818
          © 2016 British Society for Immunology
          Page count
          Pages: 9
          Categories
          Review Article
          Review Article
          Custom metadata
          2.0
          cei12821
          October 2016
          Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.9.4 mode:remove_FC converted:04.09.2016

          biofilm, inflammatory bowel disease, appendix, immunology

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