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Mapping the Geography of Science: Distribution Patterns and Networks of Relations among Cities and Institutes

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      Abstract

      Using Google Earth, Google Maps and/or network visualization programs such as Pajek, one can overlay the network of relations among addresses in scientific publications on the geographic map. We discuss the pros en cons of the various options, and provide software (freeware) for bridging existing gaps between the Science Citation Indices and Scopus, on the one side, and these various visualization tools, on the other. At the level of city names, the global map can be drawn reliably on the basis of the available address information. At the level of the names of organizations and institutes, there are problems of unification both in the ISI-databases and Scopus. Pajek enables us to combine the visualization with statistical analysis, whereas the Google Maps and its derivates provide superior tools at the Internet.

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      Most cited references 15

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        Mapping the backbone of science

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          Multi-university research teams: shifting impact, geography, and stratification in science.

          This paper demonstrates that teamwork in science increasingly spans university boundaries, a dramatic shift in knowledge production that generalizes across virtually all fields of science, engineering, and social science. Moreover, elite universities play a dominant role in this shift. By examining 4.2 million papers published over three decades, we found that multi-university collaborations (i) are the fastest growing type of authorship structure, (ii) produce the highest-impact papers when they include a top-tier university, and (iii) are increasingly stratified by in-group university rank. Despite the rising frequency of research that crosses university boundaries, the intensification of social stratification in multi-university collaborations suggests a concentration of the production of scientific knowledge in fewer rather than more centers of high-impact science.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            1001.5016

            General physics, Information & Library science

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