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      Self-Assembly of Coherently Dynamic, Auxetic Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals

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          Two-dimensional (2D) crystalline materials possess unique structural, mechanical, and electronic properties 1, 2 , which have rendered them highly attractive in many applications 3- 5 . Although there have been advances in preparing 2D materials that consist of one or few atomic/molecular layers 6, 7 , bottom-up assembly of 2D crystalline materials remains a considerable challenge and an active area of development 8- 10 . Even more challenging is the design of dynamic 2D lattices that can undergo large-scale motions without loss of crystallinity. Dynamicity in porous 3D crystalline solids has been exploited for stimuli-responsive functions and adaptive behavior 11- 13 . As in the case of such 3D materials, integrating flexibility/adaptiveness into crystalline 2D lattices would greatly broaden the functional scope of 2D materials. Here we report the self-assembly of unsupported, 2D protein lattices with precise spatial arrangements and patterns through a readily accessible design strategy. Three single- or double-point mutants of the C 4 symmetric protein RhuA were designed to assemble via different modes of intermolecular interactions (single disulfide, double disulfide and metal coordination) into crystalline 2D arrays. Owing to the flexibility of the single disulfide interactions, the lattices of one of the variants ( C98RhuA) are essentially defect-free and undergo substantial but fully correlated changes in molecular arrangement, giving coherently dynamic 2D molecular lattices. Notably, C98RhuA lattices possess a Poisson's ratio of −1, the lowest thermodynamically possible value for an isotropic material.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis.

          Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.
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            UCSF Chimera--a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis.

            The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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              NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis.

              For the past 25 years NIH Image and ImageJ software have been pioneers as open tools for the analysis of scientific images. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.

                Author and article information

                6 March 2016
                02 May 2016
                19 May 2016
                02 November 2016
                : 533
                : 7603
                : 369-373
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
                [2 ]School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2051, USA
                [3 ]Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093
                Author notes
                Correspondence and request for materials should be addressed to F.A.T. ( tezcan@ ).

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