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      NecroX-5 exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects via modulation of the TNFα/Dcn/TGFβ1/Smad2 pathway in hypoxia/reoxygenation-treated rat hearts

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          Abstract

          Inflammatory and fibrotic responses are accelerated during the reperfusion period, and excessive fibrosis and inflammation contribute to cardiac malfunction. NecroX compounds have been shown to protect the liver and heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to further define the role and mechanism of action of NecroX-5 in regulating infl ammation and fi brosis responses in a model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR). We utilized HR-treated rat hearts and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated H9C2 culture cells in the presence or absence of NecroX-5 (10 µmol/L) treatment as experimental models. Addition of NecroX-5 signifi cantly increased decorin (Dcn) expression levels in HR-treated hearts. In contrast, expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and Smad2 phosphorylation (pSmad2) was strongly attenuated in NecroX-5-treated hearts. In addition, signifi cantly increased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), TGFβ1, and pSmad2, and markedly decreased Dcn expression levels, were observed in LPS-stimulated H9C2 cells. Interestingly, NecroX-5 supplementation effectively attenuated the increased expression levels of TNFα, TGFβ1, and pSmad2, as well as the decreased expression of Dcn. Thus, our data demonstrate potential antiinflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of NecroX-5 against cardiac HR injuries via modulation of the TNFα/Dcn/TGFβ1/Smad2 pathway.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Pathophysiology of ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

          Reperfusion of ischaemic tissues is often associated with microvascular dysfunction that is manifested as impaired endothelium-dependent dilation in arterioles, enhanced fluid filtration and leukocyte plugging in capillaries, and the trafficking of leukocytes and plasma protein extravasation in postcapillary venules. Activated endothelial cells in all segments of the microcirculation produce more oxygen radicals, but less nitric oxide, in the initial period following reperfusion. The resulting imbalance between superoxide and nitric oxide in endothelial cells leads to the production and release of inflammatory mediators (e.g. platelet-activating factor, tumour necrosis factor) and enhances the biosynthesis of adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Some of the known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, and diabetes) appear to exaggerate many of the microvascular alterations elicited by ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R). The inflammatory mediators released as a consequence of reperfusion also appear to activate endothelial cells in remote organs that are not exposed to the initial ischaemic insult. This distant response to I/R can result in leukocyte-dependent microvascular injury that is characteristic of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Adaptational responses to I/R injury have been demonstrated that allow for protection of briefly ischaemic tissues against the harmful effects of subsequent, prolonged ischaemia, a phenomenon called ischaemic preconditioning. There are two temporally and mechanistically distinct types of protection afforded by this adaptational response, i.e. acute and delayed preconditioning. The factors (e.g. protein kinase C activation) that initiate the acute and delayed preconditioning responses appear to be similar; however the protective effects of acute preconditioning are protein synthesis-independent, while the effects of delayed preconditioning require protein synthesis. The published literature in this field of investigation suggests that there are several potential targets for therapeutic intervention against I/R-induced microvascular injury. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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            Transforming growth factor-beta function blocking prevents myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded rats.

            Excessive myocardial fibrosis impairs cardiac function in hypertensive hearts. Roles of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in myocardial remodeling and cardiac dysfunction were examined in pressure-overloaded rats. Pressure overload was induced by a suprarenal aortic constriction in Wistar rats. Fibroblast activation (proliferation and phenotype transition to myofibroblasts) was observed after day 3 and peaked at days 3 to 7. Thereafter, myocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis developed by day 28. At day 28, echocardiography showed normal left ventricular fractional shortening, but the decreased ratio of early to late filling velocity of the transmitral Doppler velocity and hemodynamic measurement revealed left ventricular end-diastolic pressure elevation, indicating normal systolic but abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial TGF-beta mRNA expression was induced after day 3, peaked at day 7, and remained modestly increased at day 28. An anti-TGF-beta neutralizing antibody, which was administered intraperitoneally daily from 1 day before operation, inhibited fibroblast activation and subsequently prevented collagen mRNA induction and myocardial fibrosis, but not myocyte hypertrophy. Neutralizing antibody reversed diastolic dysfunction without affecting blood pressure and systolic function. TGF-beta plays a causal role in myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction through fibroblast activation in pressure-overloaded hearts. Our findings may provide an insight into a new therapeutic strategy to prevent myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded hearts.
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              Induction of cardiac fibrosis by transforming growth factor-beta(1).

              The role of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) in the production and deposition of collagens and in the induction of gene expression in the myocardium in relation to the development of myocardial fibrosis will be discussed. Very low expression of TGF-beta(1) and collagen type I and III mRNA is seen in the normal rat heart. Both expressions are markedly increased in the infarcted heart and the levels of TGF-beta(1) mRNA precedes increases in mRNA levels for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, suggesting a possible role of TGF-beta(1) in remodeling processes in the myocardium. The TGF-beta(1) expression is normally only transient since continuous TGF-beta(1) overexpression seems to promote nonadaptive cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. In vitro, TGF-beta(1) induces an increase in collagen production and secretion and enhances the abundance of mRNA levels for collagen type I and III in rat cardiac fibroblasts in culture. TGF-beta(1) also stimulates in vivo the expression of ECM proteins and in vivo gene transfer of TGF-beta(1) can induce myocardial fibrosis. Increased myocardial TGF-beta(1) and ECM protein mRNA are found in myocardial fibrosis induced by angiotensin II infusion, by noradrenaline treatment, by isoprenaline infusion, and by long-term blockade of NO synthesis. In vivo antagonism of TGF-beta(1) by neutralizing anti-TGF-beta(1) antibodies or by proteoglycans prevents the increase in gene expression of ECM proteins and inhibits myocardial fibrosis, suggesting that the increases in matrix protein production and fibrosis are mediated by TGF-beta(1). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean J Physiol Pharmacol
                Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol
                KJPP
                The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology : Official Journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology
                The Korean Physiological Society and The Korean Society of Pharmacology
                1226-4512
                May 2016
                26 April 2016
                : 20
                : 3
                : 305-314
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, BK21 Project Team, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, Busan 47392, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Integrated Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan 47392, Korea.
                [3 ]VNU University of Science, Hanoi 120036, Vietnam.
                [4 ]Product Strategy and Development, LG Life Sciences Ltd., Seoul 03184, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jin Han. phyhanj@ 123456inje.ac.kr

                #These authors contributed equally to this study.

                Article
                10.4196/kjpp.2016.20.3.305
                4860373
                27162485
                Copyright © 2016 The Korean Physiological Society and The Korean Society of Pharmacology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003725;
                Award ID: 2010-0020224
                Award ID: 2012R1A2A1A03007595
                Award ID: NRF-2015R1D1A1A01057937
                Categories
                Original Article

                necrox-5, decorin, hypoxia/reoxygenation, infl ammation

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