Prolactin activity was measured in serum, urine and milk using a specific human prolactin radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum, urine and milk were parallel with the human prolactin standard in the RIA. There was no correlation between serum prolactin levels and urinary prolactin activity. Dialysis of urine samples resulted in complete loss of human prolactin activity while the addition of human prolactin to the urine resulted in the recovery of over 50 % of the hormone after dialysis. Thus it was concluded that prolactin is not present in urine. In additional experiments it was observed that the RIA prolactin activity in urine was significantly correlated with the osmolality of the urine and that Na<sup>+</sup> and K<sup>+</sup> were contributory elements. On the other hand, prolactin was found in human milk and correlated well with the expected serum levels of this hormone. This latter finding is interesting because prolactin receptors have been shown to exist on the serosal side of the mammary epithelial cells. The presence of prolactin in milk suggests the possibility of other sites of action for this hormone in addition to the cell membrane.