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      Ganado menor y enfoque de género. Aportes teóricos y metodológicos Translated title: Minor livestock and gender approach: theoretical and methodological contributions


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          Resumen: La presencia de ovinos y caprinos en México es marginal, en comparación con otras partes del mundo. También es reducido su consumo en relación con la carne de res. Sin embargo, ambas especies son importantes para la tradición culinaria mexicana y para la economía campesina. Este artículo persigue dos objetivos: analizar las relaciones de trabajo en sistemas de producción ovina y caprina en México; y proponer nuevos acercamientos teórico-metodológicos para la investigación y el diseño de políticas públicas dirigidas al sector. En él se argumenta que el análisis de género de los sistemas productivos de ganadería menor permite comprender y documentar de manera más efectiva el trabajo de mujeres y hombres en la producción animal, así como las desigualdades de género en el acceso y control sobre tierras de pastoreo, insumos, servicios veterinarios y crediticios.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract: The presence of sheep and goats in Mexico is marginal, compared to other parts of the world. Their consumption is also reduced compared to beef's. However, both species are important for the Mexican culinary tradition and for peasant economy. This article pursues two objectives: analyzing the work relationships in sheep and goat production systems in Mexico; and suggesting new theoretical-methodological approaches for research and public policy design for the sector. It argues that gender analysis of minor livestock productive systems allows understanding and effectively documenting the work of women and men in animal production, as well as gender inequalities in the access and control of grazing lands, inputs, veterinary services and credit.

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          Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

          Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.
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            Livestock Agrodiversity of Mazahua Smallholder CampesinoSystems in the Highlands of Central Mexico.

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              Economic contribution of draught animals to Mazahua smallholder Campesino farming systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.

              The economic contribution of draught animals to smallholder Mazahua campesino systems in two mountain villages of San Felipe del Progreso, in the central highlands of Mexico, was assessed. Campesinos rely on draught animals for cultivation tasks, as pack animals, and as transport for agricultural and domestic activities. The villages were San Pablo Tlalchichilpa (SPT) and La Concepción Mayorazgo (LCM). Twelve households that possessed draught animals were monitored from July 1999 to June 2000, nine in SPT and three in LCM, in terms of animal inventories and income from their draught animals, in cash and opportunity values. Equines in SPT have substituted bulls, and are recognized for their multipurpose contribution, while in LCM bulls are still used for ploughing the land. Overall total mean gross income was US dollar 490.78 per farm per year, plus US dollar 56 as opportunity value of the fertilizer value of manure for both villages. Deducting estimated costs, owning draught animals leaves a mean net margin of US dollar 412.50/year in SPT and of US dollar 285.64/year in LCM. There is a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between ownership of draught animals and incomes, with a regression coefficient of US dollar 279.16 per year per draught animal. Besides positive economic returns, having work animals alleviates drudgery for the campesino families.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Agricultura, sociedad y desarrollo
                agric. soc. desarro
                Colegio de Postgraduados
                December 2015
                : 12
                : 4
                : 515-531
                [1 ] Colegio de Postgraduados México

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Agricultural Economics & Policy
                Cultural Studies
                Social Issues

                Sociology,Agricultural economics & Resource management,Cultural studies,Horticulture
                acceso,control,división genérica del trabajo,pequeños rumiantes,sistemas productivos,access,gender division of labor,small ruminants,productive systems


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