Vanessa Shaw , 1 , 2 , Nonnie Polderman 3 , José Renken-Terhaerdt 4 , Fabio Paglialonga 5 , Michiel Oosterveld 6 , Jetta Tuokkola 7 , Caroline Anderson 8 , An Desloovere 9 , Laurence Greenbaum 10 , Dieter Haffner 11 , Christina Nelms 12 , Leila Qizalbash 13 , Johan Vande Walle 9 , Bradley Warady 14 , Rukshana Shroff 15 , 16 , Lesley Rees 15 , 16
16 December 2019
Dietary management in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an area fraught with uncertainties and wide variations in practice. Even in tertiary pediatric nephrology centers, expert dietetic input is often lacking. The Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce (PRNT), an international team of pediatric renal dietitians and pediatric nephrologists, was established to develop clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) to address these challenges and to serve as a resource for nutritional care. We present CPRs for energy and protein requirements for children with CKD stages 2–5 and those on dialysis (CKD2–5D). We address energy requirements in the context of poor growth, obesity, and different levels of physical activity, together with the additional protein needs to compensate for dialysate losses. We describe how to achieve the dietary prescription for energy and protein using breastmilk, formulas, food, and dietary supplements, which can be incorporated into everyday practice. Statements with a low grade of evidence, or based on opinion, must be considered and adapted for the individual patient by the treating physician and dietitian according to their clinical judgment. Research recommendations have been suggested. The CPRs will be regularly audited and updated by the PRNT.