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      Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots transformation as a tool for exploring aluminum-responsive genes function

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          To develop a useful alternative approach to evaluate the gene function in hairy roots.


          Arabidopsis and tobacco (wild-type or mutant) were a host for Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation.


          The hairy roots formation efficiency ranged from 53 to 98% in tobacco and 53 to 66% in Arabidopsis. Hairy and intact roots showed similar gene expression pattern in response to salt and aluminum stress. Genomic polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent images showed high rate (>80%) of co-integration of T-DNAs and uniform cell transformation without use of any antibiotic selection. Whole processes of hairy roots were completed within 1 month after the infection of Agrobacterium.


          Aluminum-responsive orthologous gene function could be evaluated by NtSTOP1-KD and Atstop1 as a host for hairy roots transformation.

          Lay abstract

          Hairy roots have been used for various purposes over the last several years. In the present study we used Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots as an alternative approach for Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. We developed a simple, effective and reproducible hairy root protocol in tobacco and Arabidopsis. Developed hairy roots were compared with intact roots to characterize the gene response to aluminum, NaCl stress and cellular localization of genes. Aluminum-responsive orthologous genes function could be evaluated by using NtSTOP1-KD and Atstop1 as a host for hairy roots transformation.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana.

          The Agrobacterium vacuum infiltration method has made it possible to transform Arabidopsis thaliana without plant tissue culture or regeneration. In the present study, this method was evaluated and a substantially modified transformation method was developed. The labor-intensive vacuum infiltration process was eliminated in favor of simple dipping of developing floral tissues into a solution containing Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 5% sucrose and 500 microliters per litre of surfactant Silwet L-77. Sucrose and surfactant were critical to the success of the floral dip method. Plants inoculated when numerous immature floral buds and few siliques were present produced transformed progeny at the highest rate. Plant tissue culture media, the hormone benzylamino purine and pH adjustment were unnecessary, and Agrobacterium could be applied to plants at a range of cell densities. Repeated application of Agrobacterium improved transformation rates and overall yield of transformants approximately twofold. Covering plants for 1 day to retain humidity after inoculation also raised transformation rates twofold. Multiple ecotypes were transformable by this method. The modified method should facilitate high-throughput transformation of Arabidopsis for efforts such as T-DNA gene tagging, positional cloning, or attempts at targeted gene replacement.
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            Engineering hybrid genes without the use of restriction enzymes: gene splicing by overlap extension.

            Gene splicing by overlap extension is a new approach for recombining DNA molecules at precise junctions irrespective of nucleotide sequences at the recombination site and without the use of restriction endonucleases or ligase. Fragments from the genes that are to be recombined are generated in separate polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The primers are designed so that the ends of the products contain complementary sequences. When these PCR products are mixed, denatured, and reannealed, the strands having the matching sequences at their 3' ends overlap and act as primers for each other. Extension of this overlap by DNA polymerase produces a molecule in which the original sequences are 'spliced' together. This technique is used to construct a gene encoding a mosaic fusion protein comprised of parts of two different class-I major histocompatibility genes. This simple and widely applicable approach has significant advantages over standard recombinant DNA techniques.
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              Rapid, transient expression of fluorescent fusion proteins in tobacco plants and generation of stably transformed plants.

              Expression and tracking of fluorescent fusion proteins has revolutionized our understanding of basic concepts in cell biology. The protocol presented here has underpinned much of the in vivo results highlighting the dynamic nature of the plant secretory pathway. Transient transformation of tobacco leaf epidermal cells is a relatively fast technique to assess expression of genes of interest. These cells can be used to generate stable plant lines using a more time-consuming, cell culture technique. Transient expression takes from 2 to 4 days whereas stable lines are generated after approximately 2 to 4 months.

                Author and article information

                Future Sci OA
                Future Sci OA
                Future Science OA
                Future Science Ltd (London, UK )
                March 2019
                08 February 2019
                08 February 2019
                : 5
                : 3
                [1 ]Laboratory of Plant Cell Technology, Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501–1193, Japan
                [2 ]Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences, MGM College, Aurangabad 411-003, India
                [3 ]State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Agriculture, Guangxi Universities, Nanning 530-005, China
                Author notes
                *Author for correspondence: koyama@
                © 2019 Hiroyuki Koyama

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

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