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Chemolysis of A Uric Acid Stone in a Horseshoe Kidney

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      Abstract

      Chemolysis of kidney stone is not unheard of. However, to our knowledge, there is no previous report of chemolysis of a kidney stone in a horseshoe kidney. We report the first ever case of chemolysis of a stone in a horseshoe kidney. As part of his visible haematuria workup 4 years ago, a 66-year-old gentleman with a history of gout was found to have a horseshoe kidney. In early 2017, he was seen in the urology clinic with some non-specific abdominal pain without a recent history of visible haematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms, and urinary tract infections. His CT KUB (computed tomography of kidneys, ureters and bladder), revealed a 1.3cm stone in his horseshoe kidney [Figure 1 and 2]. At the same time, his CT KUB has also picked up some retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy in the abdomen and pelvis which were suspicious of lymphoma. His serum uric acid level was noted to be normal. Subsequently, he underwent a laparoscopic right iliac lymph node biopsy which confirmed nodal marginal zone non‑Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma. He was reviewed by the haematology team and they decided to adopt a watch and wait approach to his disease with quarterly CT CAP (computed tomography of chest, abdomen and pelvis) scans. During this period of time, he had several gout attacks and he was started on allopurinol i.e. 100mg once a day. He also considerably increased his daily fluid intake. 6 months after his initial CT KUB, he was found to be completely stone free on his CT scan [Figure 3 and 4].

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      Urolithiasis through the ages: data on more than 200,000 urinary stone analyses.

      The incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis are increasing but clinicians also have the impression that gender and age distributions of stone formers are changing. Moreover, regional differences in stone occurrence and composition have been observed. We analyzed such trends based on a large series of urinary stone analyses. A total of 224,085 urinary stone analyses from 22 German centers were evaluated to determine the incidence of stone composition and identify age and gender distributions from 1977 to 2006. A subset of 58,682 stone analyses from 1993 to 2006 was available to identify regional differences in stone composition in Germany. Calcium containing calculi were most common in each gender. The overall male-to-female ratio of 2.4:1 increased from 1977 (1.86:1) to 2006 (2.7:1). The predominance of male calcium stone formers was even higher among elderly patients with a 3.13:1 ratio at ages 60 to 69. Since 1997, we observed a tendency toward an increasing incidence in middle-aged patients at ages 40 to 49 years. While the rate of infection stones constantly decreased, the incidence of uric acid calculi remained stable with an overall rate of 11.7% in males and 7.0% in females with a peak at higher ages. Cystine stones remained rare at 0.4% in males and 0.7% in females. In terms of regional analyses we noted great variation in stone composition in the 2 genders. Uric acid stones were more common in the eastern and southern regions but infection stones were mostly seen in eastern regions. In what is to our knowledge the largest series of stone analysis reported to date we identified an age and gender relationship of stone formation and composition. Regional variations are common and underline the influence of living habits, diet and standard of medical care on urinary stone formation. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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        Determining the incidence of horseshoe kidney from radiographic data at a single institution.

        An estimated 150,000 children are born with birth defects each year. One of the most frequent genitourinary abnormalities is horseshoe kidney (HSK). The incidence of HSK in the population is estimated to be 1/400 to 1,600 births based on autopsy data from the 1940s and 1950s. We prospectively evaluated the incidence of HSK based on radiographic studies to determine the contemporary incidence of HSK. In a 6-month period patients undergoing abdominal computerized tomography, renal ultrasonography and excretory urography were screened for HSK. After identification medical charts were reviewed for demographics, history, study indication and findings. A literature review of 12 studies of 825 patients with HSK was compared with the current series with regard to common associated findings. From 15,320 radiographs 23 patients were identified with HSK for an overall incidence of 1/666. Computerized tomography, excretory urography and ultrasound identified 16, 5 and 2 patients, respectively, while 16 were male, 7 were female, 20 were adults and 3 were children. The most common concomitant urological disorder was nephrolithiasis in 9 patients (39%), prompting operative intervention in 4. The radiographic incidence of HSK closely matched data from autopsy series and yet it differed from that in current radiographic series using ultrasound in the perinatal period. Our radiographic evaluation of the HSK incidence closely matches past autopsy series. This finding suggests that the incidence of HSK remains stable despite an increasing number of birth defects. Moreover, it appears that radiographic studies can accurately estimate the incidence of congenital anatomical disorders. Our data suggest that HSK is a relatively benign condition with a low requirement for operative intervention in these incidentally identified patients.
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          Urolithiasis in the horseshoe kidney: a single-centre experience.

          To report the operative management and subsequent stone-free rates of patients with urolithiasis in a horseshoe kidney and treated at one centre. We retrospectively reviewed all patients presenting to our centre with a horseshoe kidney and urolithiasis over a 15-year period. The stone burden, surgical management, complications and stone clearance rates were recorded. In all, 55 patients with urolithiasis in horseshoe kidney were treated. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was used in 60 renal units in 47 patients. Five patients had extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), two had flexible ureteroscopy and one had a laparoscopic pyelolithotomy for a stone extending into the isthmus. PCNL was used for large stones (mean digitized surface area = 614.32 mm(2)) and required one to four stages to achieve an overall stone clearance rate of 88%. Stones were cleared at one sitting in 77% of PCNL procedures, completely cleared in two-thirds of patients treated by ESWL, and in both who had flexible ureteroscopy and the one treated with laparoscopic pyelolithotomy. Complications were minimal, with 15% minor and 3% major complications in the PCNL group only. Appropriate management of urolithiasis within the horseshoe kidney depends not only on stone burden, but also on stone location, calyceal configuration and malrotation. Stones can be cleared successfully in almost all patients providing that all techniques are available to the operating surgeon.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Journal of Endoluminal Endourology
            JELEU
            Dougmar Publishing Group, Inc.
            2561-9187
            April 10 2018
            July 12 2018
            : 1
            : 1
            : e37-e40
            10.22374/jeleu.v1i1.14
            © 2018

            Copyright of articles published in all DPG titles is retained by the author. The author grants DPG the rights to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. The author grants DPG exclusive commercial rights to the article. The author grants any non-commercial third party the rights to use the article freely provided original author(s) and citation details are cited. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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            Self URI (journal page): http://jeleu.com/index.php/JELEU
            Self URI (journal page): http://jeleu.com/index.php/JELEU

            Urology

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