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      Metal release from hip prostheses: biological monitoring of cobalt and chromium in patients with metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty

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          Abstract. The introduction of metal-on-metal implant components for hip replacement has the risk of heavy metals absorption and an increase in blood levels of metal ions, which may potentially lead to systemic toxicity. In the present study the concentration of Co and Cr were determined in the serum of patients with MoM arthroplasty in comparison with healthy subjects. This study assessed serum concentrations of Co and Cr in 134 patients having metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prosthesis. Control group consisted of 30 healthy individuals without MoM arthroplasty. Concentrations of Cr and Co were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data was statistically analyzed by ANOVA and multiple comparison tests were used to identify significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). Mean serum metal levels for patients were 4.6 µg/L ± 7.8 µg/L for cobalt and 6.8 µg/L ± 9.4 µg/L for chromium. In comparison with the control age matched group, we observed statistically significant differences p < 0.005. Mean serum levels for the control group were 0.77 ± 0.19 µg/L for cobalt and 0.51 ± 0.23 µg/L for chromium. No significant differences were observed based on gender or unilateral prostheses vs bilateral implants, although an upward trend was observed. The results suggests that the use of MoM hip prostheses led to an increase in the serum concentrations of Co and Cr, a potential indicator of ongoing Co and Cr exposure.

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          Copper and carcinogenesis.

          Metal ions play an important role in biological systems, and without their catalytic presence in trace or ultratrace amounts many essential co-factors for many biochemical reactions would not take place. However, they become toxic to cells when their concentrations surpass certain optimal (natural) levels. Copper is an essential metal. Catalytic copper, because of its mobilization and redox activity, is believed to play a central role in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as O2-* and *OH radicals, that bind very fast to DNA, and produce damage by breaking the DNA strands or modifying the bases and/or deoxyribose leading to carcinogenesis. The chemistry and biochemistry of copper is briefly accounted together with its involvement in cancer and other diseases.
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            Interleukin 7 is produced by murine and human keratinocytes

            Interleukin 7 (IL-7) was originally identified as a growth factor for B cell progenitors, and subsequently has been shown to exert proliferative effects on T cell progenitors and mature peripheral T cells as well. Constitutive IL-7 mRNA expression so far had been demonstrated in bone marrow stromal cell lines, thymus, spleen, and among nonlymphoid tissues in liver and kidney. Here we show that both murine and human keratinocytes express IL-7 mRNA and release IL-7 protein in biologically relevant amounts. The physiological or pathological relevance of keratinocyte-derived IL-7 is presently unknown. Our finding that keratinocytes can produce IL-7 in concert with reports that IL-7 is a growth factor for in vivo primed antigen- specific T cells, as well as for T lymphoma cells suggests, however, that keratinocyte-derived IL-7 is important in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
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              Serum ceruloplasmin and copper levels in patients with primary brain tumors.

              Serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels are known to increase in several malignancies such as osteosarcomas, some gastrointestinal tumors, and lung cancer. In this study serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in 40 patients with primary brain tumors were studied. Both parameters were increased in sera of patients with tumors in comparison with healthy subjects or patients with non-tumorous neurological diseases. It is concluded that copper and ceruloplasmin represent a good complement to some other nonspecific parameters in evaluating the activity of malignancy and the therapeutic results.

                Author and article information

                Trace Elements and Electrolytes
                Dustri-Verlgag Dr. Karl Feistle
                October 14 2016
                © 2016

                Endocrinology & Diabetes,General medicine,Medicine,Gastroenterology & Hepatology,Nutrition & Dietetics
                cobalt,biological monitoring,hip prostheses,chromium


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