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      Biomechanics of the ankle

      ,

      Orthopaedics and Trauma

      Elsevier

      ankle biomechanics, subtalar joint, talocrural joint, tibiotalar joint

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          Abstract

          This paper provides an introduction to the biomechanics of the ankle, introducing the bony anatomy involved in motion of the foot and ankle. The complexity of the ankle anatomy has a significant influence on the biomechanical performance of the joint, and this paper discusses the motions of the ankle joint complex, and the joints at which it is proposed they occur. It provides insight into the ligaments that are critical to the stability and function of the ankle joint. It describes the movements involved in a normal gait cycle, and also highlights how these may change as a result of surgical intervention such as total joint replacement or fusion.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Ligamentous posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis.

          Ankle sprains are the most common injuries in sports and recreational activities. Ankle osteoarthritis can be caused by ankle ligament lesions. Latency time between injury and osteoarthritis is influenced by the type and side of the injured ligaments. The side of the ligamentous lesion correlates with the hindfoot alignment. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Of a cohort of 247 patients with ankle arthritis, we reviewed data from 30 patients (33 ankles; mean age, 58.6 years) with ligamentous end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. The patients were evaluated etiologically, clinically, and radiologically. Etiologic analysis: 55% had a ligamentous lesion from sports injuries (soccer, 33%); 85% injured the lateral ankle ligaments, and 15% injured the medial and medial-lateral ligaments. The mean latency time between injury and osteoarthritis was 34.3 years. The survivorship rate for single severe ankle sprains was worse than that for chronic recurrent ligamentous lesions (mean latency time, 25.7 vs 38.0 years; P < .05), and the rate for medial sprains was worse than for lateral sprains (mean latency time, 27.5 vs 35.0 years; P < .05). At follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score was 23.0 points, 52% had varus malalignment, 52% had persistent instability, and the mean ankle arthritis grade was 2.6 points. There was a correlation between chronic lateral ankle instability and varus malalignment. Lateral ankle sprains in sports are the main cause of ligamentous posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis and correlate with varus malalignment. At the time of end-stage ligamentous ankle osteoarthritis, persistent instability may be encountered.
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            Six DOF in vivo kinematics of the ankle joint complex: Application of a combined dual-orthogonal fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging technique.

            Accurate knowledge of in vivo ankle joint complex (AJC) biomechanics is critical for understanding AJC disease states and for improvement of surgical treatments. This study investigated 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in vivo kinematics of the human AJC using a combined dual-orthogonal fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. Five healthy ankles of living subjects were studied during three in vivo activities of the foot, including maximum plantarflexion and dorsiflexion, maximum supination and pronation, and three weight-bearing positions in simulated stance phases of walking. A three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the AJC (including tibia, fibula, talus, and calcaneus) was constructed using 3D MR images of the foot. The in vivo AJC position at each selected position of the foot was captured using two orthogonally positioned fluoroscopes. In vivo AJC motion could then be reproduced by coupling the orthogonal images with the 3D AJC model in a virtual dual-orthogonal fluoroscopic system. From maximum dorsiflexion to plantarflexion, the arc of motion of the talocrural joint (47.5 +/- 2.2 degrees) was significantly larger than that of the subtalar joint (3.1 +/- 6.8 degrees). Both joints showed similar degrees of internal-external and inversion-eversion rotation. From maximum supination to pronation, all rotations and translations of the subtalar joint were significantly larger than those of the talocrural joint. From heel strike to midstance, the plantarflexion contribution from the talocrural joint (9.1 +/- 5.3 degrees) was significantly larger than that of the subtalar joint (-0.9 +/- 1.2 degrees). From midstance to toe off, internal rotation and inversion of the subtalar joint (12.3 +/- 8.3 degrees and -10.7 +/- 3.8 degrees, respectively) were significantly larger than those of the talocrural joint (-1.6 +/- 5.9 degrees and -1.7 +/- 2.7 degrees). Strong kinematic coupling between the talocrural and subtalar joints was observed during in vivo AJC activities. The contribution of the talocrural joint to active dorsi-plantarflexion was higher than that of the subtalar joint, whereas the contribution of the subtalar joint to active supination-pronation was higher than that of the talocrural joint. In addition, the talocrural joint demonstrated larger motion during the early part of stance phase while the subtalar joint contributes more motion during the later part of stance phase. The results add quantitative data to an in vivo database of normals that can be used in clinical diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of the AJC after injuries. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.
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              A comprehensive study of pressure distribution in the ankle joint with inversion and eversion.

              The understanding of load transfer characteristics is the baseline for biomechanics of the ankle joint. Changes in contact patterns of the articular cartilage from the norm may indicate pathologic conditions. Measurement of the contact in human cadaver ankles provides a direct measurement for this understanding. The force transfer characteristics of the three facets of the ankle joint were investigated. Five fresh-frozen cadaver lower extremities were tested in 12 positions under three axial loads of 490, 686, and 980 N. Fuji film served as the pressure transducer and the prints were analyzed by a computerized video digitizer. The results demonstrated that as the foot was moved into inversion or eversion with the ankle in neutral flexion or dorsiflexion, there was a decrease in total contact area and an increase in the average high pressure. In plantarflexion, the contact area was lower and the average high pressure was higher, indicating a greater force per unit area as compared with dorsiflexion and neutral flexion. In plantarflexion, however, little change was noted with inversion or eversion. In dorsiflexion, the total contact area was higher and the average high pressure slightly lower as compared with neutral flexion. With inversion, the contact area of the medial facet of the ankle increased and with eversion it increased on the lateral facet, especially in dorsiflexion. With an increase in loading, the pressure did not significantly increase but the contact area did increase. The centroid of the contact moved anteriorly to posteriorly on the talus as the joint moved from dorsiflexion to plantar-flexion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Orthop Trauma
                Orthop Trauma
                Orthopaedics and Trauma
                Elsevier
                1877-1327
                1877-1335
                1 June 2016
                June 2016
                : 30
                : 3
                : 232-238
                Affiliations
                Claire L Brockett PhD University Academic Fellow, Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Conflicts of interest: none declared
                Graham J Chapman PhD Research Fellow, Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds and, Leeds NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Leeds, UK. Conflicts of interest: none declared
                Article
                S1877-1327(16)30048-3
                10.1016/j.mporth.2016.04.015
                4994968
                © 2016 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Basic Science

                Orthopedics

                tibiotalar joint, talocrural joint, subtalar joint, ankle biomechanics

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